PGDHHM – 2nd Set of Assignments

 

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2nd Set of Assignments (Modules 6 to 11)

Module 6

Hospital Planning & Facilities Management

 

Total: 100 Marks

 

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

 

  1. Describe in detail various steps involved in hospital design.

 

  1. Describe Surgical suite of 200 bedded hospital. What preventive measures will be carried out to reduce risk of infection?

 

  1. Describe the Planning and designing of ICU for 300 bedded hospital

 

  1. Describe the Planning & Management of Inventory in 300 bedded hospital.

 

  1. Write short notes on :

 

  1. a) Objectives of disaster management plan
  2. b) Green hospital

 

 

 

 

 

Module 7

Organizational Behaviour

 

Total: 50 Marks

 

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 10 marks.

 

  1. What is motivation? Describe different motivational techniques? For motivating the office staff in a healthcare institution which theory of motivation will you apply and why?

 

  1. Describe path goal and situational leadership theory in detail.

 

  1. Describe the elements of HRD systems.

 

  1. Describe the quality and objective of patient care.

 

  1. Write short notes on :

 

  1. a) The managerial grid
  2. b) Job enrichment and its benefits for hospital

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Module 8

 

Hospital Supportive Services

 

Total: 100 Marks

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

 

  1. Define Nursing administration. Discuss the major responsibilities associated with administration of nursing services.

 

  1. How will you plan & organize the radiology services in a hospital?

 

  1. Describe the functions of CSSD? How will you plan and organize CSSD department in 200 bedded hospital?

 

  1. What are public relations? Discuss its importance in hospital and methods to promote good public relations.

 

  1. Write short notes on :
  2. a) Importance and main components of medical records
  3. b) Blood bank

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Module 9

 

Quality Management in Healthcare

 

Total: 50 Marks

Answer the following questions: Each question carries 10 marks

 

  1. What are the steps in improving patient quality?

 

  1. Explain Quality Management Cycle

 

  1. What is Accreditation? What are its benefits? How a successful Accreditation system helps hospital? Explain in detail.

 

  1. Write short notes on :
  2. a) EFQM Excellence model
  3. b) Types of medical audit

 

  1. Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. i) Donabedian’s framework for quality
  2. Is used worldwide
  3. Outcome relates to physical health
  4. Process measurements are not possible
  5. Takes non-clinical aspects of health care into account

 

  1. ii) Investing in quality
  2. Costs more than the returns
  3. Clarifies the services available to clients
  4. Will eliminate negligence claims
  5. Will lead to an enormous amount of wastage

 

iii) Patient quality

  1. Is synonymous with patient satisfaction
  2. Reducing complaints is sufficient to gain competitive advantage
  3. Should be measured in comparison to a standard reference
  4. Depends on providing the latest treatment

 

  1. iv) The following statement is true
  2. Segmentation helps improve the quality of a service
  3. Need should be equal to response in order to make a profit
  4. Response should be equal to need in order to make a loss
  5. Segmentation is according to patient need and not purchaser need

 

  1. v) Improvement in patient quality
  2. Requires a step-by-step approach
  3. Can be sorted out easily by apologising to patients
  4. Can be achieved by providing good treatment
  5. Requires identification of quality features by managers

 

  1. vi) In traditional management
  2. Junior staff are not involved
  3. Performance standards are set which motivate staff
  4. Staff are empowered to make decisions
  5. There is a focus on processes

 

vii) Quality programmes

  1. Must be devised and implemented by senior managers
  2. Fail due to commitment and understanding by top management
  3. Need leadership by senior managers
  4. Must motivate staff through extrinsic incentives i.e. bonuses,

promotions

 

viii) Professionals

  1. Are the best persons to tackle quality in the health service
  2. Do not need checks in view of their rigorous training
  3. Should take part in regular clinical audits
  4. Change practice regularly in the light of new evidence7

 

  1. ix) Differentiation
  2. Needs to take the customers’ views into account
  3. Is the provision of a bigger and more expensive product or service
  4. By lowering the price is the best method
  5. Is not useful when there is fierce competition

 

  1. x) Clinical audit
  2. Internal retrospective audit is not commonly used
  3. Is compulsory in all hospitals
  4. Does not require additional time for clinicians
  5. Results in savings for the organization

 

 

 

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Module 10

 

Stake Holders In Health Care Sector

 

Total : 100 Marks

 

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

 

  1. Describe evolution of NGO’S & types of NGO’S in India

 

  1. Describe in detail Indian Pharmaceutical Industry?

 

  1. Describe Health Insurance Contracts.

 

  1. Describe documentation in Clinical Research

 

  1. Write short notes on

 

  1. a) Information Technology in healthcare
  2. b) Role of government in medical equipment manufacturing industry

 

 

 

Module 11

 

Marketing Health Care

 

Total: 100 Marks

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

 

  1. You plan to setup a large hospital of 200 beds in a large city like Pune, Bhopal etc. How would you do a market research for the same? Explain also how would you do SWOT analysis?

 

  1. Explain & classify services.

 

  1. Explain in brief the factors affecting pricing.

 

  1. Describe Market Segmentation procedure.

 

  1. Write short notes on :

 

  1. a) Advantages of positioning
  2. b) Stages of buying behaviour process

 

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Public Health

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Public Health

Total: 100 Marks

 

Answer the following questions: Each question carries 20 marks

  1. 1. Describe the Food safety issues including laws, investigation & prevention.

Answer:Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, as well as policies on biotechnology and food and guidelines for the management of governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer

 

  1. 2. Explain Demographic profile of India along with health problems in India

Answer: The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), more than a sixth of the world’s population. Already containing 17.5% of the world’s population, India is projected to be the world’s most populous country by 2025, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050. Its population growth rate is 1.41%, ranking 102nd in the world in 2010. The Indian population had reached the billion mark by 2000. India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25

 

  1. 3. Describe in detail Technologies for treatment of Bio medical waste

Answer:Medical care is vital for our life and health, but the waste generated from medical activities represents a real problem of living nature and human world. Improper management of waste generated in health care facilities causes a direct health impact on the community, the health care workers and on the environment Every day, relatively large amount of potentially infectious and hazardous waste are generated in the health care hospitals and facilities around the world. Indiscriminate disposal of BMW or hospital waste and exposure to such waste

 

  1. 4. Write short note on :
  2. a) Purification of water

Answer:Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal of this process is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacological,

 

  1. b) Radiation effects

Answer:Radiation specialists use the unit “rem” (or sievert) to describe the amount of radiation dose someone received. We are going to use that unit throughout the sections. Without getting into technical specifics about that unit, it is enough to know that it indicates a measure of how much radiation energy is absorbed in our body. And, as we will see in other sections, the total energy that is absorbed and its effectiveness in causing change is the basis for

 

  1. 5. A) Multiple Choice Questions
  2. i) Epidemic curve is distribution of cases according to
  3. a) Time
  4. b) Place
  5. c) Person
  6. d) Fatal Cases

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. ii) Use of Gambusia fish to control malaria is an example of
  2. a) Biological control
  3. b) Genetic Control
  4. c) Chemical Control
  5. d) None of the above

Answer:

 

 

  1. iii) Diethyl toluamide is used to
  2. a) Kill mosquitoes
  3. b) As a repellant against fleas
  4. c) As a repellant against mosquitoes
  5. d) Both b & c

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. iv) Cohort Study proceeds from
  2. a) Cause to effect
  3. b) Effect to cause
  4. c) Treatment to cure
  5. d) None of the above

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. v) Efficiency of Pasteurization is tested by
  2. a) Horrock’s test
  3. b) OT test
  4. c) Phosphatase test
  5. d) Widal test

Answer:

 

 

  1. vi) Salmonella food poisoning commonly occurs through
  2. a) Farm animals and poultry
  3. b) Tinned food
  4. c) Vegetables
  5. d) None of the above.

Answer:

 

 

  1. vii) Demographic cycle consists of
  2. a) Two stages
  3. b) Three stages
  4. c) Four stages
  5. d) Five stages

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. viii) The following is an IUD
  2. a) Diaphragm
  3. b) Suppositories
  4. c) Copper –T
  5. d) Gossypol

Answer:

 

 

  1. ix) The current life expectancy (in years) at birth in India is:
  2. a) 63
  3. b) 73
  4. c) 68
  5. d) 57

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. x) Oral pills are
  2. a) Mala-N
  3. b) Mala-D
  4. c) Both
  5. d) None of the above

Answer:

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Materials Management

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Materials Management

Total: 100 Marks

 

Answer the following questions: Each question carries 20 marks

 

  1. 1. Enumerate the various factors affecting the utilization of equipment inHealthcare Institutions.

Answer: In the present healthcare scenario, increasing operational efficiency and reducing costs, whilst improving service provided to the patient, are a constant challenge. Advances in engineering and information technology, particularly during the last few decades, have revolutionized medical care. The availability and utilization of various healthcare equipment, at all levels, in the health system for effective and efficient service delivery was amply emphasized in the Alma-Ata declaration at the International Conference on Primary Healthcare in

 

 

  1. 2. Describe the objectives of Inventory control

Answer: An inventory-control system is the mechanism within a company that is used for efficient management of the movement and storage of goods and the related flow of information. Product resellers have access to technology-driven software programs that help optimize inventory control, which is critical in achieving business success. Getting product to customers on time and as inexpensively as possible are the main goals of an inventory-control system.

Avoid Stock-Outs: Making sure that your customers

 

  1. 3. Discuss the advantages of preventive maintenance

Answer: Preventative maintenance is maintenance that is regularly performed on a piece of equipment to lessen the likelihood of it failing. Preventative maintenance is performed while the equipment is still working, so that it does not break down unexpectedly.  Preventative maintenance is planned so that any required resources are available.  The maintenance is scheduled based on a time or usage trigger. A typical example of an asset with a time based preventative maintenance schedule is an air-conditioner which is serviced every year, before summer. A

 

  1. 4. Write short notes on.
  2. a) ABC analysis

Answer: It is an analysis of a range of items that have different levels of significance and should be handled or controlled differently. It is a form of Pareto analysis in which the items (such as activities, customers, documents, inventory items, sales territories) are grouped into three categories (A, B, and C) in order of their estimated importance. ‘A’ items

 

  1. b) Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

Answer: An inventory-related equation that determines the optimum order quantity that a company should hold in its inventory given a set cost of production, demand rate and other variables. This is done to minimize variable inventory costs. The full equation is as follows:

 

where :

  1. A) Multiple Choice Questions
  2. i) The functions of Hospital Formulary Committee are following except:
  3. a) Responsible for the preparation of the formulary for the hospital.
  4. b) To exercise over all control on the consumption of drugs and tomaintain economy.
  5. c) It considers the deletion of certain drugs which are not frequentlyused.
  6. d) Make selection of drugs and injections which are to be used in thehospital.

Answer

 

 

  1. ii) Pre requisite for modern materials management in hospitals are:
  2. a) Meticulous planning
  3. b) Accurate demand estimation
  4. c) Appropriate staffing
  5. d) All of the above

Answer

 

 

  1. iii) Cost incurred in placing an order is known as
  2. a) Inventory carrying cost
  3. b) Shortage cost
  4. c) Inventory ordering cost
  5. d) Storage cost.

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. iv) Space requirement for storage of drugs in a major hospital with a bedstrength of 700 and above is
  2. a) 4 – 5 sq. ft. area per bed
  3. b) 7 – 8 sq. ft. area per bed
  4. c) 10 – 15 sq. ft. area per bed
  5. d) 20 – 25 sq. ft. area per bed

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. v) “VED analysis” is the analysis of items based on
  2. a) Criticality of the items in relation to functioning of the hospital
  3. b) Quantity and rate of consumption of items
  4. c) Cost criteria
  5. d) Availability of costly items

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. vi) Vitamin preparations should ideally be stored at
  2. a) Cold temperature 2C to 10C
  3. b) Cold temperature 15C to 25
  4. c) Room temperature
  5. d) – 4C

Answer:

 

 

  1. vii) Advantage of centralized purchasing are following except
  2. a) Vendors offer better prices and better service and quantitydiscounts are possible.
  3. b) Duplication of effort and haphazard purchasing practice areminimized.
  4. c) Responsibility of the purchasing function is with single departmenthead, there by facilitating effective management control.
  5. d) Various members of the hospital have the authority to purchaseand purchaser usually knows the needs of his department andsecures it.

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. B) Write ‘True or False’ in front of respective sentence
  2. i) Imported medical equipment is more reliable and easy to maintainthan an indigenous one.

Answer:

 

  1. ii) Purchasing encompasses the process of procurement.

Answer

 

 

  1. C) Fills in the blanks
  2. i) The Equipment Audit Committee should meet for a minimum of

………………….… in six months.

Answer:

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Healthcare Systems

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Healthcare Systems

Total: 100 Marks

 

Answer the following questions: Each question carries 20 marks

 

  1. 1. Write in detail about National Rural Health Mission India.

Answer: The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is an initiative undertaken by the government of India to address the health needs of underserved rural areas. Founded in April 2005 by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the NRHM was initially tasked with addressing the health needs of 18 states that had been identified as having weak public health indicators.

Under the NRHM, the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States as well as North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh have been

 

  1. 2. Write about National Health Programs for non communicable diseases.

Answer: National Health Programmes for Non Communicable Diseases are as given below:

  1. National ProgrammeFor Control Of Blindness:Vision loss from cataract is one of the chief reasons of blindness in India. One and a half million new cases of cataract blindness occur every year, and affect individuals, families, and communities. The greater part of people with cataract blindness live in rural areas where their blindness is related to poverty, lack of medical insurance, and poor access to eye care and surgical services. The cure for cataract blindness is a safe and inexpensive surgery. While the solution is simple, it has also been beyond the reach of most of the people.In view of this India launched the National Program for Control of

 

 

 

  1. 3. Write about agencies involved in International Health.

Answer:Almost the entire cost of health care in the developing world is borne by the developing countries themselves. According to two separate estimates, aid from international health organizations in the developed countries pays for less than 5% of the total health care costs in the developing world. The estimates do not specify exactly what they include as health aid, but they probably omit the value of food relief and other health-related disaster relief, as well as money spent on water supply and sanitation projects, although these activities

 

 

  1. 4. Write short notes on
  2. a) Quality Council of India

Answer: Quality Council of India is the national level body responsible for formulating the strategy, general policy, constitution and monitoring of various components of QCI including the accreditation boards to ensure an effective accreditation system, monitoring the progress of activities & appeal mechanisms set by the respective boards.  Quality Council of India, (QCI), registered as autonomous society was formed by a joint initiative of Government of India and the Indian Industry represented by the three prime industry associations,

 

  1. b) AYUSH

Answer: The Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, abbreviated as AYUSH, is a governmental body in India purposed with developing education and research in ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), yoga, naturopathy, unani, siddha, and homoeopathy, and other alternative medicine systems. Created in March 1995 as the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy (ISM&H), AYUSH

 

  1. 5 A) Multiple Choice Questions
  2. i) The current Infant mortality rate (IMR) of India is around
  3. a) 42
  4. b) 60
  5. c) 100
  6. d) 22

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. ii) Under the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) the servicesinclude
  2. a) Outpatient care
  3. b) Laboratory and x-ray investigations
  4. c) Hospitalization
  5. d) All the above

Answer

 

 

  1. iii) The Primary Health Centre is directly under the charge of:
  2. a) Medical officer
  3. b) Medical Superintendent
  4. c) Health Assistant (Male)
  5. d) Auxillary Nurse Midwife ( ANM)

 

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. iv) Under the RCH programme, the child survival interventions are
  2. a) Immunization
  3. b) Vitamin A supplementation
  4. c) Oral rehydration therapy
  5. d) All the above

Answer

 

 

  1. v) The following vaccines are included in UIP schedule except
  2. a) BCG
  3. b) MMR
  4. c) DPT
  5. d) OPV

Answer

 

 

  1. vi) In the NHP-2002, it is envisaged to eradicate the following diseases
  2. a) Polio and Yaws
  3. b) Filariasis& Kala Azar
  4. c) Leprosy & TB
  5. d) None of the above

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. vii) The following are the components of National Blindness ControlProgramme
  2. a) Vitamin-A prophylaxis
  3. b) Cataract Surgeries
  4. c) Health manpower training
  5. d) All the above.

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. viii) The prevalence of blindness in India is
  2. a) 0.5 %
  3. b) 0.7 %
  4. c) 1.5%
  5. d) 2.5%

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. ix) The activities under NLEP are
  2. a) MDT
  3. b) Detection of cases
  4. c) Rehabilitation
  5. d) All the above.

Answer:

 

 

 

  1. x) Accredited Social Health Activist will be chosen by and accountable tothe
  2. a) Medical Officer (MO)
  3. b) Government of India (GOI)
  4. c) Gram Panchayat
  5. d) ZillaParishad

Answer:

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Financial Management

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Financial Management

 

Total: 100 Marks

 

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

  1. 1. What is Budget ? Explain in details the Capital budgeting process.

Answer: An organisation must earn enough revenue so that after all costs have been subtracted, there is a profit remaining. One of the most useful financial tools is the budget. A budget is a business plan expressed in financial terms. Budgets can be drawn up for sales, costs or investment spending. A budget will include a degree of prediction of performance which is usually based on past data, e.g. sales.

Capital budgeting is the process that companies use for decision making on capital project. The capital project lasts for longer time, usually more than one year. As the project is usually large and has important impact on the long term success of the business, it is crucial for the business to make the right decision.

 

  1. 2. Explain in details the different types of Financial ratios.

Answer:Financial ratios are one of the most common tools of managerial decision making. A ratio is a comparison of one number to another—mathematically, a simple division problem. Financial ratios involve the comparison of various figures from the financial statements in order to gain information about a company’s performance. It is the interpretation, rather than the calculation, that makes financial ratios a useful tool for business managers. Ratios may serve as indicators, clues, or red flags regarding noteworthy relationships between

 

 

  1. 3. Explain the three postures a company can take in estimating Working capital.

Answer: For investors, the strength of a company’s balance sheet can be evaluated by examining three broad categories of investment quality: working capital adequacy, asset performance and capitalization structure. In this article, we’ll start with a comprehensive look at how best to evaluate the investment quality of a company’s working capital position. In simple terms, this entails measuring the liquidity and managerial efficiency related to a company’s current position. The analytical tool employed to accomplish this task will be a company’s cash conversion

 

 

  1. 4. Explain the role of Financial Management in Healthcare sector & functionsof Finance Manager?

Answer:Financial managers perform data analysis and advise senior managers on profit-maximizing ideas. Financial managers are responsible for the financial health of an organization. They produce financial reports, direct investment activities, and develop strategies and plans for the long-term financial goals of their organization. Financial managers typically:

  • Prepare financial statements, business activity reports

 

  1. 5. Write short notes on :
  2. a) Inventory Management

Answer:Inventory management is the process of efficiently overseeing the constant flow of units into and out of an existing inventory. This process usually involves controlling the transfer in of units in order to prevent the inventory from becoming too high, or dwindling to levels that could put the operation of the company into jeopardy. Competent inventory management also seeks to control the costs associated with the inventory, both from the

 

  1. b) Revenue Expenditure

Answer:Revenue expenditures are usually just called “expenses.” Expenses are the costs your company incurs doing its normal business, and they are recognized immediately. In accrual accounting, you recognize revenues when they’re earned and expenses when they’re incurred. When you immediately record your expenses, you are matching them with the revenue those expenses helped produce. For example, labor and materials are expenses incurred to provide the services reflected in the revenue they are matched against.

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Basic Principles of Management

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Basic Principles of Management

Total : 100 Marks

 

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks

 

  1. 1. What is meant by Management process? Describe the various functions ofManagement

Answer:Management process refers to planning and controlling the performance or execution of an activity in an organization. There can be two types of management processes including; process management and project management. Process management deals with the performance and management system. Management process is conducted by the top management of the company. It is the most important process because it gives the control to management over the tasks of the company.

Controlling a complex organisation so as

 

  1. 2. Discuss the Hawthorne experiments by Elton Mayo and significance thereof in area of Management

Answer: The Hawthorne Experiments began in 1924, Mayo’s involvement in them in 1928, after he had moved to the Harvard University School of Business Administration as Associate Professor of Industrial Research. Later awarded a Chair, he remained at Harvard until his retirement in 1947. During the Second World War, Mayo contributed to the development of supervisor training within his Training Within Industry (TWI) programme, which was widely adopted in the USA. The last two years of his life were spent in Britain as an advisor to the British government on problems within industry.

The Hawthorne plant of Western Electric was located

 

  1. 3. Your hospital wants to organize a health checkup camp. Describe in detailthe planning and organizing process to make camp a great success

Answer:Health ‘camps’ are one of the strategies adopted by both government and non-government organizations. This literally means that a team of health professionals ‘camp’ in an area to carry out a limited health intervention. For instance, government organizes sterilization camps for women. Or an NGO organises a diabetes screening camp. Or a private hospital organises a blood donation camp. Unfortunately government pays little attention to the quality of sterilization service and tends to focus on targets. Or there are NGOs which conduct camps just as an activity, which do not yield quality. Many times, a health camp run by with a private hospital

 

  1. 4. What is meant by Authority? Distinguish between Authority and Power.

Explain the conditions required for acceptable instructions.

Answer:  Authority involves the duties that are delegated to an individual while power is the possession of control that allows an individual to influence the actions of others. Most individuals who are in positions of power often have some type of authority.  An example of a person with authority is a director of a company. The director can choose to make changes to an organization without the consent of others and is trusted to do so. Police officers also have authority. They are able to arrest people and prosecute them based on their individual

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Write short notes on :
  2. a) Participative Management and its importance

Answer:Participative management acts as a force to motivate employees to meet specific organizational goals. The main idea behind this style of management is not only using physical capital but also making optimum utilization of intellectual and emotional human capital. This is the process of involving people in decision making process to ensure that everyone’s psychological needs are met. It, in turn, increases the job satisfaction among employees and improves the quality of their work life. Motivated employees are the biggest assets of an organization and

  1. b) Budgeting and benefits of budgeting

Answer:Budgeting is the most basic and the most effective tool for managing your money.  Yet, most people avoid doing it because it is additional work, much like cutting your lawn or fixing the roof.  Budgeting also connotes that you have to give up and stop yourself from enjoying stuff.  What budgeting actually does is clearly show you how you allocate your money and present you the choices on what stuff to enjoy – based on your financial limitations.  It will save you the grief of overspending and being too much in debt. Budgeting does not stop you from enjoying stuff, it ensures that you enjoy stuff when you want it.

Benefits of Budgeting

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ELECTIVE – PRODUCT MANAGEMENT

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Prepare a Project Initiation Kick Off Plan for a residential flat scheme (5 storey, 30 apartments, 3 BHK)/or a 1000 seated indoor stadium. Establish the objectives and scope of the project; it is first necessary to identify the overall reason for the project by relating it to one or more objectives of the organization.

 

Answer : Introduction :

The purpose of Project Initiation is to begin to define the over- all parameters of a project and establish the appropriate project management and quality environment required to complete the project.

Development of the Project Charter is a pivotal starting point for the project, establishing the project definition that will serve as the foundation for all future efforts. The completion of this process is marked by the Project Kick-off Meeting, in which the Project Manager presents the Project Charter.

 

Purpose of Project planning:

Successful projects begin with a detailed project definition that is understood and accepted by Stakeholders. Putting everything down in writing helps ensure a commitment among Project Team members and between the team and the Stakeholders. As part of Project Initiation, an initial Project Plan is developed, which comprises the Project Charter, Cost/Scope/Schedule/ Quality (CSSQ) documents, and preliminary risk identification list. These documents, once approved, ensure a consistent understanding of the project, help to set expectations, and identify resources necessary to move the project to the next level of detailed planning. Potential problems are identified so that they can be addressed early in the project.

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