Archive | 2013

QM0018 – QUALITY DEVELOPMENT METHODS

 

 

 

 

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ASSIGNMENT

                                    

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4) PGDTQMN – (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME QM0018 – QUALITY DEVELOPMENT METHODS
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1351
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q1. Performance analysis is an assessment of process, equipment, employee or any other factor to gauge the progress towards predetermined goals. Explain briefly the steps for conducting performance analysis. What are the advantages of performance analysis?

(Meaning of performance analysis-2 marks, Steps for conducting performance analysis-6 marks, Advantages of performance analysis-2 marks)10 marks

Answer.

Performance analysis

Performance is a situational concept associated with the experience which is being studied. For example, in the context of organizational financial performance, performance is considered as a measure of the change of the financial state of an organization, or the financial outcomes that result from management decisions and the implementation of those decisions by members of the organization. Performance analysis is an assessment of process, equipment, employee, or any other factor to gauge progress towards predetermined goals. It is guided and assessed by effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Front-end performance analysis is one of the most important investments that the organizations should make to achieve maximum return on all other investments in human

 

 

 

Q2. Discuss supplier development process. Explain the reasons for supplier development.

(Meaning of supplier development-2 marks, Supplier development process-4 marks, Reasons for Supplier Development Program-4 marks)10 marks

Answer.

supplier development

Supplier development is the process of working with certain suppliers/subcontractors on a one-to-one basis Two most important functions of a supplier development pro gram are:

  • Provides information on products, expected sales growth, etc.
  • Provides training on the application of cost effective implementation and quality tools.

Major organizations use a “hands-on” approach to improve their supplier’s manufacturing processes and administrative systems. They work side by side with their

 

 

Q3. Describe the features of Total Systems Intervention (TSI). Explain the phases in TSI Process.

(Meaning of TSI-2 marks, Features of TSI-4 marks, Phases in TSI process-4 marks)10 marks

Answer.

Meaning of TSI

Total Systems Intervention (TSI) is used to select suitable system methodologies as part of an action research program in large organizations. The organization employs a variety of system metaphors. The system metaphor is an explanation that the customers, programmers, and managers describe about how the system works. It is used to support innovative thinking about the organization and the difficult issues that managers have to deal with. TSI operates on the hypothesis that organizations are too complicated to understand by just using one system model. Besides, the strategies and the difficulties faced by the organizations should also be investigated using a series of system metaphors.

Features of TSI Methodology    

 

 

 

Q4. Stakeholder participation improves the organizational processes. Explain importance and principles of stakeholder participation.

(Meaning of stakeholder participation-2 marks, Importance of stakeholder participation-4 marks, Principles of stakeholder participation-4 marks)10 marks

Answer.

Stakeholder Participation

Stakeholder participation is a process wherein stakeholders, those with rights and, therefore, responsibilities, and/or interests play an active role in the process of decision making and in the subsequent activities which affect them. Organizations seek stakeholder participation in various activities like planning, management, monitoring and evaluation. The term „participation‟ is generally used to indicate various kinds of activities. As such, confusion can arise when it is used without specifying which it is meant for.

Importance of stakeholder participation

Stakeholder participation improves the organizational processes. It can improve the quality and impact of information products/services by:

 

 

Q5. Discuss the stages of Benchmarking. Briefly explain the types of benchmarking.

(Meaning of Benchmarking-2 marks, Stages of Benchmarking-4 marks, Types of Benchmarking-4 marks) 10 marks

Answer.

Benchmarking can be defined as the systematic process of comparing an organization’s products, services and practices against those of competitor organizations or other industry leaders to determine what it is they do that

allows them to achieve high levels of performance. Benchmarking1 allows you to evaluate the best practices regarding the products and processes, both within an organization and outside it. Benchmarking is carried out with the intention of using it as a guide and reference point for improving the practice of one’s own organization. Benchmarking can take place within an organization, when it forms a part of total quality management (TQM).

Stages of Benchmarking

There are five key stages of benchmarking. They are: planning, data

 

 

Q6. Explain DMAIC and DMADV models. Distinguish between DMAIC and DMADV

(Explanation of DMAIC model-4 marks, Explanation of DMADV model-4 marks, Differences-2 marks)10 marks

Answer.

DMAIC model

model in detail:

1. Define: It defines the goals and objectives of the project. It ensures that the goals are consistent with the demands and expectations of the customers and the enterprise strategy. It is the initial step of the six sigma process of the DMAIC model and is the phase responsible for identifying various significant factors such as the scope of the project, expectations and resources required for the project schedule and approvals. It defines the goals of the team and various milestones and hence reviews and monitors the various steps involved in the process.

The various factors that are defined at this stage include

  • Voice of the customer
  • Scope of the Project
  • Prioritization

 

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QM0017 – QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

 

 

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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4) PGDTQMN – (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME QM0017 – QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1349
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

Q1. Describe the various clauses provided by ISO 9001:2008 standard. (Meaning of ISO 9001:2008 standard, Listing the Clauses, Explanation of the Clauses provided by ISO 9001:2008 standard) 2, 2, 6

Answer.

ISO 9001:2008

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was founded in 1946 to develop a common set of processes such as manufacturing, common trade, and communications that supported the objectives set by the quality management systems of an organization. The first standard was published in 1987 and it has been under constant revision in 1994, 2000. The current revision published in Nov 2008 is ISO 9001:2008. ISO 9001:2008 is a written set of standards that describes the basic elements and clauses of the Quality Management System.

Requirements of ISO 9001: 2008

 

 

Q2. Elucidate the various documentation requirements of AS 9100. List out the various benefits of implementing AS 9100. (Meaning of AS 9100, Documentation requirement of AS 9100, Listing the benefits of AS 9100) 2, 4, 4

Answer.

Meaning of AS 9100

AS 9100 version which was released in October 1999 (the latest revision has been in January 2009) standardizes the requirements of the Quality Management System of the aerospace industry to the greatest extent possible. Thus, the standardization of the various compliance requirements resulted in huge cost savings due to the elimination or reduction of various unique requirements that were developed for different customer. AS 9100  version is a quality system standard that ensures quality in the areas of design, development, production, installation and servicing. It combines and harmonizes various requirements that are outlined in the AS 9000 version and the ISO 9001 version.

AS 9100 Documentation Requirements

 

 

 

Q3. Explain the requirements of ISO 14001. Describe features and the benefits of ISO 14001. (Requirements of ISO 14001, Features, Benefits)  5, 2, 3

Answer.

Requirements of ISO 14001

ISO 14001 is specified by International Organization for Standardization and is the part of the 16 international Environmental standards specified. The latest version of this standard is ISO 14001:2004 which specifies the Environmental Management System of an organization. The requirements specify the organization to develop and implement a policy and information about the environmental aspects. These can be used by the organization to measure and document the environmental impact. The standard comprises of 17 elements. ISO 14001 gives a framework and structured process for organizations to seek ways to manage and to continually improve the environment performance. The EMS may usually apply to the entire corporation or the operating unit. Following is an outline of the ISO 14001 EMS Standard:

  • Scope.

 

Q4. Explain the framework of ISO/IEC 20000 (Meaning of ISO/IEC 20000, Framework of ISO/IEC 20000)  2, 8

Answer.

ISO 20000

ISO 20000 is the first global standard for IT Service management. It provides an integrated set of management processes for the efficient delivery of services to the industry and its customers. The standard essentially comprises of two parts: ISO/IEC 20000-1 and ISO/IEC 20000-2.ISO 20000-1 is the „measurement or standard for Service Management “where as the ‘ Code of practice for Service Management‟ is ISO 20000-2.The Code of practice‟ provides descriptions about the best practices in more detail, and gives guidance and recommendations. A detailed description of the best practices and the requirements are mentioned in ISO20000-1.ITIL is a

 

 

Q5. Explain the elements and benefits of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS) standard ISO18001. (Meaning of OHSAS, Elements of OHSAS, Benefits of OHSAS) 2, 6, 2

Answer.

 

About OHSAS

Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems is a framework for an organization to establish controls that mitigates health and safety risks, reduces the occurrence of accidents and helps to improve its operational performance. The requirements of OHSAS 18001 were developed from British standard 8800. The following are its goals:

  • It specifies requirements for an occupational health and safety (OH &S) management system.
  • Enables an organization to control its OH & S risks and improve its performance.
  • Many organizations are implementing an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) as part of their risk management strategy to

 

Q6. Explain the framework of (Customer Operations Performance Centre) COPC 2000. List out the various benefits of COPC 2000. (Meaning of COPC 2000, Framework of COPC 2000, Benefits of COPC 2000)

Answer.

Meaning of COPC 2000

The ability to provide excellent customer service is a powerful differentiator in a highly competitive market. Achieving certification to the COPC-2000® Customer Service Provider (CSP) Standard is a significant step in establishing an organization as a customer service leader. It affirms the commitment to maintaining excellent processes and standards in a consistent manner.

The COPC 2000 Standard Framework

COPC CSP Performance Management system is a set of management practices, key metrics/ measurements and training for customer-centric service operations. A well-structured program and comprehensive training program is essential for organizations to achieve these performance levels. The COPC-2000 Standard is relied as a valued strategy for implementing contact centre best practices that has improved:

  • Customer satisfaction and service.
  • Inbound and outbound sales.

 

 

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QM0016 – MANAGING QUALITY IN THE ORGANIZATION

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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4) PGDTQMN – (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME QM0016 – MANAGING QUALITY IN THE ORGANIZATION
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1349
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q1. A leader cannot be effective unless he possesses certain qualities. Explain the roles, responsibilities and qualities of an effective leader. Differentiate between Transformational and Transactional Leadership. (Roles and responsibility of a Leader, Qualities of an effective Leader, Difference between Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership) 4, 3, 3

Answer.

The Roles and responsibilities of a Quality Leader

Leader has to believe in oneself and perform the given role with full interest and true care for people. The main roles of a leader includes being a :

  • Coach.
  • Mentor.
  • Active Participant.

Coach

The leaders act as coach which guides the team. They ensure that team members are performing their duties as requested. They provide training of the tools and techniques used to perform the given task.

Mentor

The leaders act as a primary source of information for the team members. Team members seek guidance from the leaders and leaders will be ready to direct their members with whatever knowledge they have about the problem.

Active participants

The leaders provide their active participation in the team

 

 

 

 

Q2. Explain the following:

a) Cognitive dissonance theory

b) PDCA Cycle

[(Explanation of Cognitive dissonance theory, Explanation of PDCA Cycle (Meaning, Stages, Implementation) ] 5, 5

Answer.

Cognitive dissonance theory

Cognitive Dissonance theory was developed by Leon Festinger in 1956. Cognitive Dissonance occurs due to two conflicting thoughts pertaining to one’s beliefs and ideals. Each individual looks for consistency among the beliefs or behaviors (Cognitions). However, in any organizations there will be situation when employees have certain disagreement with their colleagues. Disagreement may be because of reasons like personal, social, financial, and so on. The inconsistency among the beliefs or behaviors (dissonance) results in stress, where people in organization start changing their belief to suit their behaviors. Attempts should be made to reduce the dissonance.

The Cognitive Dissonance theory, suggests that people strive to reduce the dissonance by changing their beliefs and actions. The dissonant can be eliminated in

 

 

 

Q3. Strategic quality planning is an integral part of every quality management activity. Explain the strategic quality planning process. (Meaning of Strategic quality planning, Strategic quality planning process.) 5, 5

Answer.

Strategic Quality Planning

Strategic quality planning is an integral part of every quality management activity. When quality is chosen by organizations as the differentiating factor, it becomes the central issue in strategic planning. Strategic quality planning process will shift the organization and/or a department’s quality management team ahead of the notion of quick fixes and into the sphere of solutions. This leads to the development of quality management strategies. This process starts with defining what quality means with respect to an organization’s point of view for developing quality standards, creating an idea for quality and translating the idea into a series of quality strategies.

Strategic Planning Process

 

 

Q4. Describe the Quality functions and guidelines for quality systems.  (Functions of Quality, Guidelines for Quality Systems) 5, 5

Answer.

Functions of Quality

Broadly quality functions can be categorized into three:

  • Quality planning, assurance and coordination.
  • Quality maintenance.
  • Quality improvement.

Planning, assurance and coordination, quality maintenance

The following activities have to be necessarily done by the management in

order to eliminate duplication of work and ensure economy:

  • Formulating plans and procedures to serve the overall interests of the organization and not the departmental interests.

 

 

 

Q5. Motivation is a process of making a person to constantly think towards a goal and encourage him to be focussed in order to meet the target. Discuss the types of motivation and the techniques used to motivate the employees. Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. (Types of Motivation, Techniques used to motivate the employees, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs) 3, 3, 4

Answer.

Motivation and its Types

Motivation is a process of driving an individual’s interest in a particular job to attain a certain goal by providing incentives in return. Therefore, motivation is a process of making a person to constantly think towards a goal and encourage him to be focused in order to meet the target.

There are two types of motivations.

  • Intrinsic motivation.
  • Extrinsic motivation.
  1. 1.        Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation is a type of motivation where an individual feels motivated from within; there is no influence of external factors such as rewards and recognitions. In this type of motivation, an individual actually finds joy from the tasks he does and is very much satisfied by working more and more on a particular task in order to complete it. An individual may find immense joy in finding a solution for a particular problem. Similarly, an intrinsically motivated person finds immense joy in facing the challenges to solve a particular problem. However, this

 

 

 

 

Q6. Describe the need for changing organizational culture for Total Quality. Explain the elements of Total Quality Culture. (Changing Organizational Culture for TQ., Elements of Total Quality Culture) 5, 5

Answer.

Changing Organizational Culture for TQ

The reason for an organization to pursue an organizational culture based on TQ is to help the organization to focus on continuous improvement which would result in greater customer satisfaction. Total Quality enables survival in the competitive business world and this requires organizations to accept cultural changes. For example, TQ would involve employees in a company to participate on an equal basis in team meetings with individuals from three different levels of management (Senior, middle and the lower level) which needs lot of co-operation Organizations would like to adopt the TQ philosophy for basically two reasons:

  • To stay competitive and
  • To focus on continuous improvement.

Many firms have moved towards Total Quality because of the

 

 

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QM0015 – ISO/QS 9000 ELEMENTS

 

 

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4) PGDTQMN – (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME QM0015 – ISO/QS 9000 ELEMENTS
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1348
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q1. Explain the following

a) Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)

b) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

c) Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)

Answer:

Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)

APQP is developed in the late 1980s by a commission of experts gathered from the big three US automobile manufacturers: Ford, GM and Chrysler. It is a framework of procedures and techniques used to develop products in

industry, particularly the automotive industry. It serves as a guide, a standard way to share results between suppliers and automotive companies.

According to the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG), the objective of APQP is “to produce a product quality plan which will support development of a product or service to satisfy customers”. APQP specify three phases: Development, Industrialization and Product Launch. Through these phases some main topics will be monitored. These main topics will be all

 

 

Q2. Discuss the different tiers of documentation in ISO/QS 9000. Describe document control procedures for internal and external documents. [Different tiers of documentation, Document control procedures (internal & external documents) ] 5, 5

Answer:

Different tiers of documentation

Documentation of ISO/ QS9000 may use the concept of a pyramid model 2with a five tiered documentation. This is a generic approach which has evolved over years and has been followed by ISO/QS 9000 certified companies’ world over.

Tier 1 Quality Assurance Manual: This is a roadmap to the system, outlining the policies and objectives that relate to specific aspects of the system. It defines quality objective and approach that are not subjective.

Tier 2 Policies and procedures: These provide process descriptions and flowcharts of activities. They give more detail of what, who, where, why, and when an activity is carried out.

Tier 3 Work instructions: These describe step by step how to carry out a task. They are often called standard operating procedures (SOP) or standard job practices (SW) or operating guides. Work instructions must be revised and integrated into the overall documentation system.

Tier4 Forms and records. Forms are often used to collect information and record the completion of required quality activities. Sufficient records must be kept to provide objective evidence that the quality activities are being carried out.

 

 

 

 

Q3. Explain preservation, protection and maintenance of customer supplied products. (Preservation of Customer supplied products, Protection of Customer supplied products, Maintenance of Customer supplied products) 4, 3, 3

Answer.

Preservation of Customer Supplied Product

  • Organization should ensure that the conformity of the product is preserved during internal processing and delivery up to the intended destination. The organization is expected to preserve the product with safe handling, packaging, storing and protection in order to ensure that the requirement for processing is met and taken care of up to the delivery of the property to the destination. The purpose of this requirement is to prevent damage or deterioration to the conforming product that may happen when it contacts other products or when it is being harmed due to environmental factors.

 

 

Q4. Explain Preventive maintenance, Risk management and the importance of Environmental regulations. (Explanation of Preventive maintenance, Explanation of Risk management in ISO 9000, Importance of Environmental regulations) 3, 3, 4

Answer.

Preventive Maintenance

In ISO 9000, maintenance is an important aspect of quality. People responsible for implementing quality programs should make sure that the maintenance function is addressed in a proper manner. In order to remain competitive and successful, quality should become an input, not a measurement of output. Most of the firms spend lot of money and time on productivity and quality, but less on maintenance. Preventive maintenance4 is a list of pre planned maintenance actions.

 

 

Q5. Differentiate between Internal and External auditors. Explain the audit process. (Difference between Internal and External Auditor, Audit Process – Preparing for an Audit) 4, 6

Answer.

Difference between Internal and External Auditor

Internal and external auditors are qualified professionals who follow specialized standards of auditing. Their complementary skills, areas of proficiency, and perceptions help the organization to prepare the organization to reduce redundancies and bring in solid operational performance. Internal auditors are trained personnel who are an important part of the organization. The objectives to internal auditing are set by the management board of the organization. The internal auditor serves the organization by helping it achieve its quality objectives by qualitatively auditing the processes. They audit both for adequacy and compliancy. Internal auditors are concerned with all aspects of

 

 

Q6. Explain Data Analysis Performance Assessment and Defect Analysis. (Explanation of Data Analysis Performance Assessment, Explanation of Defect Analysis) 5, 5

Answer.

Data Analysis Performance Assessment

Data analysis and Performance assessment is one of the most important aspects of QS 9000.

The process of analysis begins with an understanding of the process. In the first step, the weakness in whole process and the problem needing correction is clarified. Flowcharts, theme selection matrix and Cause and effect diagram are used as a tool in this process.

In the second step, data is gathered and is examined. The data is gathered specifically to concentrate on frequently occurring problems. The next step is the implementation of the plan with statistical techniques that help to analyze the problem and develop solution that prevents the root cause from occurring again.

An important fourth step is to evaluate the effectiveness of the solution. The effects of the implemented solution are evaluated to ensure that the solution has

 

 

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QM0012- STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND PROCESS CAPABILITY

 

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL

2013

PROGRAM

MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDTQMN – (SEM 1)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME

QM0012- STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND PROCESS CAPABILITY

SEMESTER

3

CREDITS

4

MARKS

60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

Q1. Explain the concept of Pareto Chart and Scatter Diagram. (Explanation of the concept of Pareto Chart, Explanation of the concept of Scatter Diagram) 5, 5

Answer: Pareto Chart

Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) discovered that:

 

  • 80% of the wealth in Italy was held by 20% of the population
  • 20% of customers accounted for 80% of sales
  • 20% of parts accounted for 80% of cost, etc.

 

These observations were confirmed by Juran (1960) and resulted in what is known as the Pareto Principle. The Pareto Principle states that: “Not all of the causes of a particular phenomenon occur with the same frequency or with the same impact”. Pareto

 

 

 

Q2. a. Explain Poisson distribution. Give any two examples of Poisson distribution.

Answer:  Poisson Distribution

 

Poisson process is obtained when the binomial experiment is conducted many number of times. Here, the number of trials would be a large number. It is also a discrete probability distribution. If the probability of success  ‘p’ is small and the number of trials ‘n’ is large, the binomial probabilities are hard to calculate. In such cases, when ‘n’ is large and ‘p’ is small, the binomial distributions are approximated to Poisson distributions.

 

 

 

 

b. If 2% of electric bulbs manufactured by a certain company are defective, find the probability that in a sample of 200 bulbs i) less than 2 bulbs, ii) more than 3 bulbs are defective.[e-4 = 0.0183]

(Explanation of Poisson Distribution, Examples of Poisson Distribution, Calculation/Solution to the problem) 4, 1, 5

Answer: Solution
Solution
The probability of a defective bulb 

 

 

Q3. Explain the procedure generally followed in testing of a hypothesis. Write a detailed note on One- tailed and Two-tailed tests. (Procedure followed in testing hypothesis, Explanation of One tailed test, Explanation of Two tailed test) 5, 2.5, 2.5

Answer:  “Hypothesis” is a statement about a population parameter subject to verification. Let us illustrate with an example. Suppose a Manager of a Car Company says “if we drop the price of this car model by Rs.8000, we will sell 50,000 cars this year”, then such statement is called a “hypothesis”. In simple words, we make a claim. Such claim is called a “Hypothesis”.

The terms “Testing a Hypothesis” and “Hypothesis Testing” are used interchangeably. Hypothesis testing begins with an assumption or statement, called a “hypothesis” that we make about a population parameter. In that statement, we assume a

 

 

Q4. What is analysis of variance? State all the assumptions involved in analysis of variance technique. Explain the structure for One way analysis of variance or one way classification. (Meaning of analysis of variance, Assumptions, Structure of One way analysis of variance) 2, 3, 5

Answer: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

The Analysis of Variance is one of the most powerful statistical techniques. It is a statistical test for heterogeneity of means by analysis of group variances. The analysis of variance technique, developed by R.A. Fisher in 1920s, is capable of fruitful application to diversity or practical problems. Basically, it consists of classifying and cross-classifying statistical results and testing whether the means of a specified classification differ significantly. In this way it is determined whether the given classification is important in affecting the results. For example, the output of a given process might be cross-classified by machines and operators (each operator having worked on each machine

 

 

Q5. Explain the different types of attribute control charts. Distinguish between control charts for variables and control charts for attributes. (Meaning of attribute control charts, Types of attribute control charts, Differences) 2, 4, 4

Answer: The Quality of many products and services is dependent upon characteristics which cannot be measured as variables. These are called attributes and may be counted, having been judged simply as either present or absent, conforming or non-conforming, acceptable or defective. Such properties as the general appearance of paint surface, accidents, the particles of contamination in a sample of polymer, clerical errors in an invoice and the number of telephone calls are all attribute parameters. It is clearly not possible to use the methods of measurement and control designed for variables when addressing the problem of attributes.

 

different types of control chart, which are based on different statistical distributions:

 

 

 

Q6. Explain the methodology for Statistical Process Control implementation (SPC). What are the benefits derived from SPC? (Methodology of SPC, Benefits) 6, 4

Answer:  

Implementation of Statistical Process Control

Successful implementation of SPC depends on the approach to the work being structured. This applies to all organizations, whatever their size, technology or product-service range. Unsuccessful SPC implementation programs usually show weakness within either the structure of the project or commitment to it. Any procedure adopted requires commitment from senior management to the objectives of the work and an in-house coordinator to be made available.

 

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BBA405 – RETAIL MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM BBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BBA405 – RETAIL MANAGEMENT
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1712
CREDITS 2
MARKS 30

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q. 1 Explain the 4 principles of Retailing Concept and explain the 8 functions of Retailing?

 

Ans : Principles of Retailing:-

 

If you are running a retail business , whether bricks and mortar or online , there are four core principles you need to adhere to. From customer care to the four Ps, Antony Welfare, author of The Retail Inspector’s Handbook, explains what you need to know.

 

Principle 1 :The customer is the most important

 

 

Q.2  What are the various factors influencing the retail consumers?

 

Ans : Many factors influence retail trends; these factors are linked to current changes in the population, including the increase in reliance on social media and concern for the environment. Retailers are wise to adapt to the way consumers prefer to shop, while using social media in creative ways to market products to target audiences. With the increase in online shopping, retailers are responding by creating user-friendly websites and providing discounts on shipping.

 

1. Environmental Awareness:-

 

 

 

Q. 3 Describe the different kinds of markets and explain the benefits of market segmentation.

 

Ans : Four kinds of markets:

 

1.Perfect Competition:-

 

Perfect competition is a market system characterized by many different buyers and sellers. In the classic theoretical definition of perfect competition, there are an infinite number of buyers and sellers. With so many market players, it is impossible for any one participant to alter the prevailing price in the market. If they attempt to do so, buyers and sellers have infinite alternatives to pursue.

 

 

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BBA404- SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM BBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BBA404- SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1715
CREDITS 2
MARKS 30

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q.1 What are the various forms of organisation? Explain in detail.

 

Ans : Various forms of organisation :

 

1.Sole proprietorship:

2.Partnership:-

3.Corporation:

4.Cooperative:

5.Sole Proprietorship/Partnership:

 

1.Sole proprietorship:

 

A sole proprietorship is a for-profit business owned by one person. The owner may operate on his or her own or may employ others. The owner of the business has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business. A sole proprietorship is a business owned by one person. This is the simplest type of business to start and is the least regulated form of organization. For this reason, there are more proprietorships than any

 

 

Q.2 What are the sources of Working capital?

 

Ans : Working capital Definition:

 

Working capital refers to the funds needed by a business to conduct its daily operations, such as payment of wages, purchase of raw material, covering overhead costs and offering credit services. Working capital can be subdivided into two areas: regular working capital that provides a steady base for overall business objectives; and short-term working capital used to facilitate the day-to-day business operations. Sources of finance for working capital include bank loans, retained earnings, credit from suppliers, long-term loans from financial institutions, or proceeds from sale of assets.

 

Sources of Working Capital:

 

 

 

Q.3 Write short notes on the following:

(a) Materials management

(b) Managerial activities

 

Ans : (a) Material management:-  

 

Material management is an approach for planning, organizing, and controlling all those activities principally concerned with the flow of materials into an organisation. The scope of Materials Management varies greatly from company to company and may include material planning and control, production planning, Purchasing, inventory control, in-plant materials movement, and waste management. It is a business function for planning, purchasing, moving, storing material in a optimum way which help organisation to minimise the various costs like inventory, purchasing, material handling and distribution costs.

 

 

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BBA402 – MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM BBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BBA402 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1713
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q.1 Budgetary control is a strong business tool that helps companies maximize profits. Explain the

advantages of budgetary control.

 

Ans :  Advantages of budgetary control :

 

Every business needs to have a budgetary control system in place for effective and proper financial planning for the business. Sometimes the lack of a proper accountability program in a business may cause the business to make losses and incur unnecessary expenses. The benefits of budgetary control in business include the following;

 

 

 

 

Q.2 The success of a business enterprise depends to a great extent on how efficiently and effectively it can control costs. 

Give the meaning of standard costing.  Describe estimated cost and standard cost. 

 

Ans :  Meaning of standard costing  :

 

Standard costing is an important subtopic of cost accounting. Standard costs are usually associated with a manufacturing company’s costs of direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.

Rather than assigning the actual costs of direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead to a product, many manufacturers assign the expected or standard cost. This means that a manufacturer’s inventories and cost of goods sold will begin with amounts reflecting the standard costs, not the actual costs, of a product. Manufacturers, of course, still have to pay the actual costs. As a result there are almost always differences

 

 

 

Q.3 Variance analysis is a tool for measuring performance and depends on the principle of

management by exception. Explain the uses of variance. 

From the following information, calculate sales margin price variance and sales margin volume

Budgeted sale                                                     Actual sale
product Qty.

units

Sales price per unit (rs) Standard price per unit (rs) product Qty.

units

sales price per (rs)
A 600 20 12 A 800 24
B 400 15 9 B 600 12
  1000       1400  

variance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans : The uses of variances  :

 

Variance analysis, also described as analysis of variance or ANOVA, involves assessing the difference between two figures. Its uses are described below :

 

1. Budget vs. Actual Costs:

 

Variance analysis is important to assist with managing budgets by controlling budgeted versus actual costs. In program and project management, for example, financial data are generally assessed at key intervals or milestones. For instance, a monthly closing report might provide quantitative data about expenses, revenue and remaining inventory levels.

 

 

Q.4 The following are the summarised trading and profit & loss accounts of Mysore Jewellers for the

year ending 31 December 2002 and the balance sheet as on that date.

 

                            Trading and profit & loss account

 

To opening stock                     76,250     By sales                                 5,00,000

By closing stock                      98,500

To purchases                         3,22,250      

To gross profit                       2,00,000

                                            5,98,500                                                  5,98,500

 

To selling expenses                22,000           By gross profit b/d               2,00,000            

To administrative expenses     98,000           By dividend on shares              9,000

To loss on sale of assets           2,000            By profit on sale of shares        3,000

To net profit                           90,000                                                                               

                                             2,12,000                                                  2,12,000 

 

You are required to calculate the following ratios:

1. Gross profit ratio

2. Net profit ratio

3. Operating ratio

4. Operating profit ratio

5. Stock turnover ratio

6. Turnover of fixed assets

7. Return on total resources

 

A

 

Calculation of all the ratios 

 

10

10

 

Q.5 Explain the determinants of working capital requirements. 

 

Ans : Determinants of working capital requirements :

 

Requirements Of working capital depend upon various factors such as nature of business, size of business, the flow of business activities. However, small organization relatively needs lesser working capital than the big business organization. Following are the factors which affect the working capital of a firm:

 

1. Size Of Business:-

 

Working capital requirement of a firm is directly influenced by the size of its business operation. Big business organizations require more working capital than the small business organization. Therefore, the size of organization is one of the major determinants of working capital.

 

 

 

 

Q.6 From the following information prepare (i) a statement of sources and uses of funds and (ii) a

schedule of changes in working capital for M/s. Eshwari  & co.  Balance sheets as on 31stMarch

2010 and 2011 are:

 

Additional Information

 

(i)

Depreciation of Rs. 2,500 charged on Land & Buildings

 

(ii)

Building amounting to Rs. 5,000 was sold for Rs. 4,700.

 

A

Calculation and preparation of schedule of changes

in working capital  

Preparation of statement of sources and uses of

funds 

5

 

5

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BBA401- E-COMMERCE

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM BBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BBA401- E-COMMERCE
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1712
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q.1 a. eBay is The World’s Online Marketplace®, enabling trade on a local, national and international basis. With a diverse and passionate community of individuals and small businesses, eBay offers an online platform where millions of items are traded each day. Mention and explain the various opportunities offered by ecommerce for businesses.

b. What are the advantages and disadvantages of e Commerce?

 

Ans :  a. Listing the opportunities and explaining

 

Electronic commerce or e-commerce refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services.

 

Three primary opportunities are:-

 

1. Fastest Growing Segment:-

 

Jack Plunkett of Plunkett Research says that growth can be seen across all age spectra. About 75 million people ages 46 to 84 are living today, many of whom are still in their “power-earning years” and have a high potential for discretionary spending.

 

2. Competition:-

 

 

 

Q.2  a. The TCP/IP reference model is the network model used in the current Internet architecture. This model is derived from the OSI model and they are relatively same in nature. Explain the different characteristics of Gateways in the TCP/IP reference model with a neat diagram

b. Write short note on Hyper Text Mark up Language (HTML) with example

 

Ans : a. Characteristics of Gateways in the TCP/IP reference model:

 

1. TCP/IP has characteristics that enable the protocol to operate as its standardized implementation requirements dictate. These characteristics can combine with development choices that result in poor performance.

 

2. Transactional applications are affected by the overhead required for connection establishment and termination. For example, each time a connection is established on an Ethernet network, three packets of approximately 60 bytes each must be

 

 

Q.3 Hanson websites are built to work for your business and are built on the concept of intelligent website. An intelligent website is more than just a brochure on the web. It allows you to edit the website yourself through a Content Management System (CMS). What is the need for an intelligent website?

 

Ans : Need of intelligent Website:-

 

An intelligent site is always attractive. It always has the right balance or attributes, functional characteristics and content and they are organized in the way that they serve the best to the visits, and also stimulate revisits to the site. Following are the benefits of an intelligent website:

 

1. Save you precious time:

 

 

Q.4.  When a data is sent across the network it is encrypted and arranged in a way that even

if there is a diversion in the flow of data should not leak the data. At the reception it is decrypted and actual data is obtained. Explain the different methods of encryption technique.

 

Ans : Encryption:-

 

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that third parties cannot read it, but only authorized parties can. Encryption doesn’t prevent hacking but it prevents the hacker from reading the data that is encrypted. In an encryption scheme, the message or information (referred to as plaintext) is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, turning it into an unreadable cipher text (ibid.). This is usually done with the use of an encryption key, which specifies how the message is to be encoded. Any adversary that can see the cipher text should not be able to determine anything about the original message. An authorized party, however, is able to decode the cipher text using a decryption algorithm, that usually requires a secret decryption key, that adversaries do not have access to. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually needs a key-generation algorithm to randomly produce keys.

 

Various methods of encryption are:

 

 

 

Q.5.  Explain the different categories of electronic payment system in detail.

 

Ans : These are the kind of systems that will accept payments through electronic means.

 

Types of Electronic payment system:

 

1. Electronic cards:

 

Electronic cards are designed to reflect your bank

 

 

Q.6. We know that there are various internet services which help us to make the use of network efficiently. Being a regular user of the various services without probably knowing the technical aspects explain those services in details with an example. 

 

Ans :  Internet services:

 

1. Electronic Mail:-

 

Electronic mail is one of the most popular and basic network services. It’s relatively low risk, but that doesn’t mean it’s risk free. Forging electronic mail is trivial (just as is forging regular postal mail), and forgeries facilitate two different types of attacks: attacks against your reputation and social manipulation attacks (e.g., attacks in which users are sent mail purporting to come from an administrator and advising them to change to a specific password). Particularly with modern multimedia mail systems, people can send electronic mail containing programs that run with insufficient supervision and may turn out to be Trojan horses .

 

 

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BBA403 – International marketing

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL 2013
PROGRAM BBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BBA 403 – International marketing
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1714
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

Q.1 Explain the different economic indicators which give us the idea of the economic condition of the country in brief.

 

Ans : Economic indicators :

 

An economic indicator is a statistic about an economic activity. Economic indicators allow analysis of economic performance and predictions of future performance. One application of economic indicators is the study of business cycles. Economic indicators include various indices, earnings reports, and economic summaries. Examples: unemployment rate, quits rate, housing starts, Consumer Price Index (a measure for inflation), Consumer Leverage Ratio, industrial production, bankruptcies, Gross Domestic Product, broadband internet penetration, retail sales, stock market prices, money supply changes.

 

Three Types:-

 

There are three types of economic indicators: Leading, Lagging and Coincident.

 

 

 

 

Q.2 Write short notes on:

a) Arbitration

b)FDI

 

Ans : a) Meaning of arbitration :

 

Introduction to arbitration:- Arbitration is a flexible, consensual process for resolving business disputes in a binding, enforceable manner. The decision makers are called arbitrators, or collectively the arbitral tribunal. The arbitral tribunal comprises one or more independent individuals selected by the parties or appointed through a mechanism that the parties have agreed upon. An arbitral tribunal’s substantive decision is called an award

 

 

 

b) Meaning and effect of FDI :

 

FDI is a manner that grants the investor control over the acquired asset. Thus it is distinct from portfolio investment which may cross borders, but does not offer such control. Consistent economic growth, de-regulation, liberal investment rules, and operational flexibility are all the factors that help increase the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment or FDI. FDIs require a business relationship between a parent company and its foreign subsidiary. Foreign direct business relationships give rise to multinational corporations.

 

 

Q.3 What are the issues related channel decisions in international marketing?

 

Ans : Issues relating channel decision in international marketing are:-

 

1.Channel Power:-

 

A channel can be made up of many parties each adding value to the product purchased by customers. However, some parties within the channel may carry greater weight than others. In marketing terms this is called channel power, which refers to the influence one party within a channel has over other channel members. When power is exerted by a channel member they are often in the position to make demands of others. Channel power can be seen in several ways:

 

 

 

 

 

Q.4 What are the different strategies adopted by the marketer while fixing the price for the product?

 

Ans : Different strategies for fixing the price are:-

 

1. The level Of Competition:-

 

Most entrepreneurs fancy the concept of selling their products with a very high margin. This idea can only be realistic when you have a monopolistic hold on the market. But if not, you can’t sell with your desired profit margin without getting a sting from competition.

When trying to adopt a product pricing strategy or determine the right price for your product, the issue of competition is a factor that must be trashed out effectively. The more intense the competition in your industry is, the more flexible

 

 

 

Q.5 What is personal selling? Explain with reasons why local nationals are preferred as sales personnel in international marketing?

 

Ans : Personal selling:-

 

It is the process of communicating with a potential buyer (or buyers) face-to-face with the purpose of selling a product or service. The main thing that sets personal selling apart from other methods of selling is that the salesperson conducts business with the customer in person. Though personal selling is more likely to be effective with certain types of products or services, it has important applications for nearly all kinds of small businesses. In fact, most of history’s successful entrepreneurs have been skilled salespeople, able to represent and promote their companies and products in the marketplace.

Personal selling is one part of a company’s promotion mix, along with advertising, sales promotion, and public relations. Advertising is any form of paid sales presentation that is not done face-to-face. Television and radio commercials, newspaper and magazine

 

 

Q.6 Discuss the advantages of direct and indirect exporting.

 

Ans : Advantages of Direct exporting:-

 

Direct exporting means you export directly to a customer interested in buying your product. You are responsible for handling the market research, foreign distribution, logistics of shipment and for collecting payment. in direct export, the responsibility for performing international selling activities rests on the producer. The advantages of this method are:

 

1.Your potential profits are greater because you are

 

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