MB0046- Marketing Management

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SUMMER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBAN2/ PGDBAN2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0046- Marketing Management
BK ID B1629
SEMESTER 2
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

  1. 1 Explain the steps in Business Buying process.

 

Ans : Characteristics of Organisational Buyer :

 

  1. Derived Demand

 

Organizational buying is based on derived demand. Demand made by the ultimate consumers creates demand for industrial goods or services.

 

 

  1. 2 A brand is a composite set of beliefs and associations in the mind of consumers. In brand

development, as a part of branding strategy decision, the brand manager can decide to create new brand elements for the new products, apply some of the existing brand elements to the new product, or use a combination of existing and new brand elements to the existing and new products. Explain the different branding strategies used by the companies for their range of products.

 

Ans:  Definition of Brand :

 

Brand is the “name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s product distinct from those of other sellers.” Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising. Initially, livestock branding was adopted to differentiate one person’s cattle from another’s by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. A modern example of a brand is Coca-Cola which

 

 

  1. 3 Explain the classification of market based on nature of Competition and area.

 

Ans : Definition of market :

 

Usually, Market means a place where buyer and seller meets together in order to carry on transactions of goods and services. But in Economics, it may be a place, perhaps may not be. In Economics, market can exist even without direct contact of buyer and seller. This fact can be explained with the help of the following statement. Generally market is the place where buyers and sellers are physically present and finalize the transaction.

 

  1. 4 Personal selling focuses in on ‘personal’ or ‘one to one’ selling. It involves an individual salesman or a sales team establishing and building a profitable relationship with customers over a period of time through a series of steps. Explain the steps in the personal selling process which helps in the successful sales.

 

Ans : Personal Selling :

 

Personal selling is selling technique involved between person to person and between the prospective buyer and seller. Personal selling consists of human contact and direct communication rather than impersonal mass communication

 

 

 

  1. 5 Describe the stages in consumer decision making process.

 

Ans :  Stages in consumer decision making process :

 

A consumer goes through several stages before purchasing a product or service.

 

Stage 1 – Need :

 

Need is the most important factor which leads to buying of products and services. Need in fact is the catalyst which triggers the buying decision of individuals. An individual who buys cold drink or a bottle of mineral water identifies his/her need as

 

 

  1. 6 Do you think the argument of some theorists that the traditional Ps are not enough for

services marketing? Give suitable examples to prove your point.

 

Ans: Service Marketing :

 

Services marketing is a sub field of marketing which covers the marketing of both goods and services. Goods marketing includes the marketing of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) and durables. Services marketing typically refers to the marketing of both business to consumer (B2C) and business to business (B2B) services.

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MB0051-Legal Aspects of Business

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL SUMMER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBA – SEM 3

PGDBMN/ PGDENMN/ PGDFMN/ PGDHRMN/ PGDHSMN/ PGDIB/ PGDISMN/ PGDMMN/ PGDOMN/ PGDPMN/ PGDROMN/ PGDSCMN/ PGDTQMN – SEM 1

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0051-Legal Aspects of Business
BK ID B1725
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

  1. 1. Explain the performance of contracts

 

Answer: Definition

Execution of a contract by which the contracting parties are automatically discharged (see discharge of contract) of their obligations under it. Although contracts usually call for full and precise performance, a substantial performance may be acceptable under certain circumstances, on a pro rata basis, or on payment of damages for the unfinished or defective performance.  Execution of the terms of a contract after which the involved parties are discharged from their duties, as listed within the contract. A payment is usually made

 

 

  1. 2. Elaborate the rights of surety.

 

Answer: Rights of Surety can be classified into three groups, as follows;

  1. Rights against Principal debtor.
  2. Rights against Creditor.
  3. Rights against Co-Sureties.

 

 

 

  1. 3. Discuss the termination of bailment.

 

Answer: A contract of bailment is voidable at the option of the bailor, if the bailee does any act with regard to the foods bailed, inconsistent with the conditions of the bailment.For example, A lets to B, for hire, a horse of his own riding B drives the horse in his carriage. This is, at the option of A, a termination of the bailment.

 

Law relating to termination of bailment is

 

  1. 4. Explain the performance of a contract of sale of goods.

 

Answer: Performance of a contract of sale implies a duty of the seller to deliver the goods, and of the buyer to accept the delivery of the goods and make payment in accordance with the terms of the contract (sec. 31).

 

Delivery of goods sold may be made by doing anything which the parties agree shall be treated as delivery or which has the effect of putting the goods in the possession of the buyer or of any person authorized by him (Sec. 33).

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Discuss the law related to the prohibition of anti-competitive agreements.

 

Answer: Agreements which cause or are likely to cause appreciable adverse effect on competition are anti-competitive agreements. Horizontal agreements are those that are between enterprises at the same stage of the production chain. For example, agreement between two rivals is a horizontal agreement. In cases of agreements between rivals for fixing prices or for limiting production or for sharing markets, there is a presumption in the Act that such agreements cause appreciable adverse effects on competition.

the implications of anti-competitive agreements and

 

  1. 6. Explain the need and types of meetings.

 

Answer: Members of a company discuss organizational issues and other agenda through a personal gathering or through a conference call. A meeting is a routine activity in a company. It is even part of the weekly itinerary of many working individuals and business people. Meetings can be formal or informal, but for the most part, organizational meetings usually take a formal setting where preparation must be done to properly plan and execute the meeting.

There are various types of meetings that may depend on its nature and the objectives or purpose of the gathering. Any company can utilize a particular type of meeting according to what the participants aim to achieve after the conference.

 

Need for meeting: Formulating a set of

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MB0050 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SUMMER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS / MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3)

PGDENMN /PGDFMN/ PGDHRMN / PGDHSMN / PGDIB /

PGDISMN / PGDMMN / PGDOMN / PGDPMN /PGDROMN / PGDSCMN / PGDTQMN – (SEM 1)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0050 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
BK ID B1700
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1 Research is a sequential method of enquiry, directed towards a clear implicit or explicit objective. Describe in detail the steps to be carried out in a typical research study.

 

Answer : Meaning of Research :

 

Different scholars have interpreted the term ‘research’ in many ways. For instance, Fred Kerlinger (1986) stated that ‘Scientific research is a systematic, controlled and critical investigation of propositions about various phenomena.’ Grinnell (1993) has simplified the debate and stated ‘The word research is composed of two syllables, ‘re’ and ‘search’. The dictionary defines the former as a prefix meaning ‘again’, ‘anew’ or ‘over again’. Search is defined as a verb meaning ‘to examine closely and carefully’, ‘to test and try’, or ‘to probe’. Together,

 

 

 

  1. 2 Exploratory research designs are the simplest and most loosely structured research designs. Explain the methods that can be used in an Exploratory research design.

 

Answer :Meaning of Exploratory research design :

 

Exploratory research design is a type of research conducted for a problem, but the problem itself has not been clearly understood. In other words, exploratory research is a process of gathering facts and doing research that later allows for the team to create the best research design or data collection method available for specific subjects. This process will draw definitive conclusions only with caution due to the nature of the process. In many cases, this process leads to the understanding that no problem actually exists.

 

Methods and techniques  :

 

1. Study of Secondary Data

 

 

  1. 3 The choice of the measurement scale has implications for the statistical technique to be

used for data analysis. Discuss the types of measurement scales with examples.

 

Answer : Meaning of Measurement scales:

 

Measurement scales are used to categorize and/or quantify variables. This lesson describes the four scales of measurement that are commonly used in statistical analysis: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Each scale of measurement satisfies one or more of the following properties of measurement. Each value on the measurement scale has a unique meaning. A minimum value of zero. The scale has a true zero point, below which no values exist.

 

Types of Measurement scales with examples :

 

  1. Nominal Scale of Measurement:

 

 

 

 

  1. 4 Explain the following:

(a) Formalized and unconcealed questionnaire

(b) Formalized and concealed questionnaire

(c) Non-formalized and unconcealed questionnaire

(d) Non-formalized and concealed questionnaire

 

Answer : Meaning of Questionnaire :

 

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case.

Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users.

 

Formalized and unconcealed questionnaire :

 

This is the one that is the most frequently used by all management researchers. This is the one that is the most frequently used by all

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 5 a. Briefly explain the steps in Hypothesis testing.

 

Answer : 1.  Stating the research question.

 

The first step is to state the research problem in terms of a question that identifies the population(s) of interest to the researcher, the parameter(s) of the variable under investigation, and the hypothesized value of the parameter(s).

 

  1. Specify the null and alternative hypotheses:

 

The second step is to state the research question in terms of a null hypothesis (H0) and a alternative hypothesis (HA). The null hypothesis is the population parameter, µ = $30,000 (H0: µ = $30,000). The alternative hypothesis is the population parameter does not equal $30,000 ( HA: µ NE $30,000). This HA suggests a two-tailed test as NE $30,

 

 

  1. It is known form past studies that the monthly average household expenditure on the food items in a locality is Rs. 2700 with a standard deviation of Rs. 160. An economist took a random sample of 25 households from the locality and found their monthly household expenditure on food item to be Rs. 2790. At 0.01 level of significance, can we conclude that the average household expenditure on the food items is greater than Rs. 2700?

 

Answer :

Formula/ Calculation/ Solution to the problem :

 

p value = average – value for testing/(st. deviation/ sqroot of sample length)

 

so on putting all the values:

 

= (2700-2790)/(160/sq.rt25)

= -90/32

 

 

 

  1. 6 Explain the Structure of the Research Report. What are the guidelines for effective report

writing?

 

Answer : Structure of the Research Report :

 

In business, the information provided in reports needs to be easy to find, and written in such a way that the client can understand it. This is one reason why reports are divided into sections clearly labelled with headings and sub-headings. Technical information which would clutter the body of the report is placed in the appendix. The structure of a report and the purpose and contents of each section is shown below.

 

  1. Title page :

 

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MB0053 –International Business Management

 

 

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SUMMER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS / MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4)

PGDENMN /PGDFMN/ PGDHRMN / PGDHSMN / PGDIB /

PGDISMN / PGDMMN / PGDOMN / PGDPMN / PGDROMN / PGDSCMN / PGDTQMN – (SEM 2)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0053 –International Business Management
BK ID B1724
Credit and Max. Marks 4 credits; 60 marks

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1 “The world economy is globalizing at an accelerating pace”. Discuss this statement and list the benefits of globalization.

 

Answer : Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Put in simple terms, globalization refers to processes that increase world-wide exchanges of national and cultural resources. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities. Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the

 

 

 

2 Compare the Adam Smith and David Ricardo’s theories of international trade with examples.

Answer : In 1817, David Ricardo, an English political economist, contributed theory of comparative advantage in his book ‘Principles of Political Economy and Taxation’. This theory of comparative advantage, also called comparative cost theory, is regarded as the classical theory of international trade.

According to the classical theory of international trade, every country will produce their commodities for the production of which it is most suited in terms of its natural endowments climate quality of soil, means of transport, capital, etc. It

 

 

3 Regional integration is helping the countries in growing their trade. Discuss this statement. Describe in brief the various types of regional integrations.

 

Answer : Regional integration is vital to creating the infrastructure that many poor countries are unable to build on their own: trade corridors, transport networks, energy development, water resources management, and telecommunications connectivity. Effective collaboration among countries can meet the critical gaps in basic access and service delivery that promote growth and development.

Types

 

 

 

4 Write short note on:

 

a) GATS (General Agreement on trade in services)

 

Answer : The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is a treaty of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that entered into force in January 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations. The treaty was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector, in the same way the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provides such a system for merchandise trade.

All members of the WTO are signatories to the GATS. The basic WTO principle of most favoured nation (MFN) applies to GATS as well. However, upon accession, Members may introduce temporary exemptions to this rule.

 

 

b) ILO (International Labour organization)

 

Answer : Underlying the ILO’s work is the importance of cooperation between governments and employers’ and workers’ organizations in fostering social and economic progress.

 

The ILO aims to ensure that it serves the needs of working women and men by bringing together governments, employers and workers to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes. The very structure of the ILO, where workers and employers together have an equal voice with governments in its deliberations, shows

 

 

 

 

5 What is the difference between domestic and international accounting and how will you measure this difference?

Answer : What is Domestic Accounting?

 

Domestic Accounting: an information specialty providing information about a firm to users of that information as a basis for economic decisions.

 

What is International Accounting?

 

International Accounting (defined): same as above

 

 

6 Discuss the various payment terms in international trade. Which is the safest method and why?

Answer : Introduction

 

There is no predefined definition of personal import. In general a personal import is a direct purchase of foreign goods from overseas mail order companies, retailers, manufacturers or by an individual for the purpose of personal use.

 

The most common terms of purchase are as follows:

 

Consignment Purchase

Consignment purchase terms can be the most beneficial method of payment for the importer. In this method of purchase, importer makes the payment only once

 

 

 

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MB0052 – STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS POLICY

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SUMMER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS / MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4)

PGDENMN /PGDFMN/ PGDHRMN / PGDHSMN / PGDIB /

PGDISMN / PGDMMN / PGDOMN / PGDPMN / PGDROMN / PGDSCMN / PGDTQMN – (SEM 2)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0052 – STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS POLICY
BK ID B1699
Credit and Max. Marks 4 credits; 60 marks

 

Note – Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1 What is strategy? Explain some of the major reasons for lack of strategic management in some companies?

 

Answer : The concept of strategy has been borrowed from the military and adapted for use in business.  A review of what noted writers about business strategy have to say suggests that adopting the concept was easy because the adaptation required has been modest.  In business, as in the military, strategy bridges the gap between policy and tactics.  Together, strategy and tactics bridge the gap between ends and means (Figure 1).

 

 

 

Reasons for lack of strategic management:

 

Communications

 

 

 

 

2 Explain the following:

 

(a) Core competence

 

Answer : The idea of “core competences” is one of the most important business ideas currently shaping our world. This is one of the key ideas that lies behind the current wave of outsourcing, as businesses concentrate their efforts on things they do well and outsource as much as they can of everything else.

 

A core competency is fundamental knowledge, ability,

 

(b) Value chain analysis

Answer : Value Chain Analysis is a useful tool for working out how you can create the greatest possible value for your customers.

 

In business, we’re paid to take raw inputs, and to “add value” to them by turning them into something of worth to other people. This is easy to see in manufacturing, where the manufacturer “adds value” by taking a raw material of little use to the end-user (for example, wood pulp) and converting it into something that people are prepared to pay money for (e.g. paper). But this idea is just as important in service industries, where people use inputs of time, knowledge, equipment and systems to create services of real value to the

 

 

3 Describe in brief the following environmental factors which a business strategist considers:

 

(a) Political factors

 

Answer : This exercise dissects the political, governmental, and legal aspects of a particular business. Both local and global environments are studied because federal, state, local, and foreign governments are major regulators, deregulators, subsidizers, employers, and customers of organizations. The growing interdependence among economies, markets, governments, and organizations underscores the importance of considering the political variables affecting the conception, development, and operation of any

 

 

4 Write a brief note on Turnaround strategy.

 

Answer : “Turnaround strategy is a corporate practice designed and planned to protect (save) a loss-making company and transform it into a profit-making one.”

 

Definition of Turnaround Strategy

The definition of turnaround strategy w.r.t different senses is depicted below.

 

 

 

5 Define the term ‘strategic alliance’. What are its characteristics and objectives?

 

Answer : A strategic alliance is a relationship between two or more entities that agree to share resources to achieve a mutually beneficial objective. For example, a company manufactures and distributes a product in the United States and desires to sell it in other countries. Another company wants to expand its product line with the type of product the first company creates, and has a worldwide distribution channel. The two companies establish an alliance to expand the distribution of the first company’s product.

 

 

 

6 Write short notes on the following:

 

a) Competitive advantage

Answer : Competitive advantage is the favorable position an organization seeks in order to be more profitable than its competitors.

 

The challenge for a marketing strategy is to find a way of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage over the other competing products and firms in a market.

 

A competitive advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value, either by means of lower prices or by providing

 

 

 

 

b) Porter’s Competitive threat model

 

Answer : Porter suggests that there are five basic competitive forces, which influence the state of competition in an industry. He calls the “structural determinants of the intensity of competition‟, which collectively determine the profit potential of the industry as a whole. Some industries have a bigger profit potential than others, since keener competition means lower profits. These five competitive forces are as follows:

 

Threat of New Entrants: A new entrant into an industry will bring extra capacity. The new entrant will have to make an investment to break into the

 

 

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MU0013: HR AUDIT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER SUMMER 2014
PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MU0013: HR AUDIT
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1735
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1 Write a note on the major Human Resource Development (HRD) Strategies.

 

Answer : Strategies for human resource development

The government should take responsibility for planning and overseeing the development of the necessary human resources. The strategies chosen should realistically reflect the needs and capacity of the country, and an adequate budget should be allocated. Consideration of the following aspects will help to ensure the development of a human resources policy that is supportive of national drug policy implementation.

 

It is necessary to plan from an early stage and to do so for short-, medium- and longer-term needs. A quantitative analysis of the human resources needed (including a realistic estimate of the attrition rate) may help to set priorities. Financial

 

 

2 What do you mean by Human Resource Audit? Discuss the purpose of HR Audit. Explain the common approaches to HR Audit.

Answer : A Human Resources Audit is a comprehensive method (or means) to review current human resources policies, procedures, documentation and systems to identify needs for improvement and enhancement of the HR function as well as to ensure compliance with ever-changing rules and regulations. An Audit involves systematically reviewing all aspects of human resources, usually in a checklist fashion.

 

Need for HR Audit:

The purpose of an HR Audit is to recognize strengths

 

3 Suppose you have joined as an HR and you are asked to carry out the HR Audit process in your organization. What are the methods you will consider while implementing the HR Audit process?

Answer : Human resources audit tools help you conduct thorough evaluations of your human resources effectiveness. You can use these tools to help you identify HR processes that are functioning well and those that require improvements. Common HR areas you should audit include your compensation system, performance appraisal systems, policies and procedures and health and safety practices.

Interviews and Questionnaires

Interviews and questionnaires help you acquire feedback from all of your employees, including top management. These tools are ideal when you want to get a better understanding of the work your employees perform. You can find out about their

 

4 What do you mean by HR Scorecard? Explain the steps undertaken to approach a Human Resource Scorecard.

 

Answer : The HR Scorecard Approach

HR creates value by engaging in activities that produce the employee behaviors the company needs to achieve strategic goals. Managers use an HR Scorecard to measure the HR function’s effectives and efficiency in producing these employee behaviors and thus in achieving the company’s strategic goals. The HR Scorecard – shows the causal link between the HR activities, and the emergent employee behaviors, and the resulting firm-wide strategic outcomes and performance.

 

  1. Creating a HR Scorecard – Three types of

 

5 Write a brief note on the effectiveness of Human Resource Development Audit as an intervention.

Answer : Perhaps India is the first country to formally establish a totally dedicated HRD (Human Resources development) Department separated from the Personnel Department. This was designed in the year 1974 when the term HRD itself was not very popular in the USA. Two consultants from the Indian Institute of Management , Ahmadabad after reviewing the effectiveness of the performance appraisal system and training in Larsen & Toubro recommended an Integrated HR System to be established and the department dealing with development issues be separated out from the personnel department and be called

 

 

6 Write short notes on the following:

 

a)Balanced Scorecard

Answer : The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and nonprofit organizations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. It was originated by Drs. Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School)

 

 

 

b)Competency Mapping

 

Answer : Competency (or Competence) Management Systems  are usually associated with, and may include, a Learning Management System (LMS). The LMS is typically a web-based tool that allows access to learning resources. Competency Management Systems tend to have a more multidimensional and comprehensive approach and include tools such as competency management, skills-gap analysis, succession planning, as well as

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MU0012 – Employee Relations Management

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SUMMER 2014
PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MU0012 – Employee Relations Management
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1734
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1 Employees are the most important resource for any company. What do you mean by Employee Relations Management? Explain the different Employee Relations Management Tools applied in organizations

Answer : Employee Relations Management Tools

Employee relations refers to how a manager communicates with employees, develops a connection with them and helps them perform their jobs and understand workplace requirements. Managers have many different types of relationships with employees, depending on culture and the current school of management thought. Currently, many businesses encourage managers to develop close, coaching relationships with employees to help them grow their own skills and independence. But regardless of management focus, managers need the

 

 

 

2 As an HR of a Company, you are asked to focus on the causes of Grievance and the Grievance handling procedure. What according to you are the reasons of Grievance? Explain the pre-requisites you will consider while addressing Grievance handling procedure

Answer : Causes of Grievance:

 

(i) Promotions; (ii) Amenities; (iii) Continuity of service; (iv) Compensation; (v) Disciplinary action; (vi) Fines; (vii) Increments (viii) Leave; (ix) Medical Benefits; (x) Nature of the job; (xi) Payment of wages; (xii) Acting promotion; (.xiii) Recovery of dues; (xiv) Safety appliance; (xv) Superannuation; (xvi) Supersession; (xvii) Transfer; (xviii) Victimization; and (xix) Conditions of work.

 

Pre-requisites of a Grievance Handling procedure:

 

 

 

 

3 List and explain the various types of Disciplinary problems existing in an organization

Answer : Discipline is essential for organisations to regulate employee behaviour and to channel employee efforts in realising organisational goals. Management deals with all acts of indiscipline or misconduct according to the organisational rules and policies and the nature of the indiscipline.

 

Indiscipline can be classified as minor or major on the basis of the impact they have on the functioning of the organisation.Minor acts of indiscipline include absenteeism, late coming, negligence at work, failure to be present when required, inefficiency and acts of omission. Management correct minor indiscipline with written or

 

 

 

4 Discuss the Collective Bargaining Process and its issues

 

Answer : Collective bargaining is a process whereby trade unions, representing workers, and employers through their representatives, treat and negotiate with a view to the conclusion of a collective agreement or renewal thereof or the resolution of disputes.

 

A collective agreement is usually an agreement in writing between an employer and a union, on behalf of workers employed by the employer. It contains provisions reflecting terms and conditions of employment of the workers, and conferring to them their rights, privileges and responsibilities.

 

Sometimes the terms “bargaining” and “negotiating” are used to describe the same process. Theoretically, the term bargaining is probably better used to describe the economic interaction between an employer and an employee which is

 

5 What is a Trade Union and What are its activities? Explain the functions of Trade Unions.

 

Answer : A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is “maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment”. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of

 

 

6 Write a brief note on the following Acts :

 

a) Indian Trade Unions Act,1926

Answer : In India, the first organised trade union was formed in 1918 and since then they have spread in almost all the industrial centres of the country. The legislation regulating these trade unions is the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926. The Act deals with the registration of trade unions, their rights, their liabilities and responsibilities as well as ensures that their funds are utilised properly. It gives legal and corporate status to the registered trade unions. It also seeks to protect them from civil or criminal prosecution so that

 

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