MK0016- Advertising Management and Sales Promotion

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL 2014
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4)

PGDROMN – (SEM 2)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0016- Advertising Management and Sales Promotion
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1809
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1 Discuss the DAGMAR approach in setting objectives and measuring effectiveness of advertising.

 

Answer : Meaning of DAGMAR approach

Advertising is a part of marketing sometimes avoided by small business as it can be perceived as costly, ineffective and only appropriate for large corporations. However an understanding of advertising models such as AIDA and DAGMAR can help any small business plan more effective advertising.

AIDA stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action and can be used in small business marketing to improve campaigns, including those based on email autoresponders.

 

 

 

2 What is Gestalt psychology? Explain with examples how it resembles the way a person fits in the advertising message with his/her existing knowledge.

 

Answer : Gestalt Psychology is by Dr. C. George Boerne

 

Gestalt Psychology, founded by Max Wertheimer, was to some extent a rebellion against the molecularism of Wundt’s program for psychology, in sympathy with many others at the time, including William James.  In fact, the word Gestalt means a unified or meaningful whole, which was to be the focus of psychological study instead.

 

The Theory

 

Gestalt psychology is based on the observation that we often experience things that are not a part of our simple sensations.  The original observation was Wertheimer, when he noted that we perceive motion where there is nothing more than a rapid sequence of individual sensory events.  This is what he saw in the toy

 

 

 

3 Advertising is a paid form of communication. It has gained its significance since it attempts to build a positive attitude towards a product. Explain the characteristics and objectives of advertising.

Answer : Three Main Advertising Objectives

 

Increasing Sales and Profits

One of the major objectives of advertising is to increase sales and profits. Some companies, like Internet businesses, only use advertising to apprise people about their products and services. These companies don’t have sales departments. Hence, they can only sell products and earn profits if they are actively advertising. Some forms of advertising lend themselves more to producing immediate profits. For example, direct response advertising, which asks consumers for money in the ads, is specifically geared toward building sales and profits.

 

 

 

 

4 What is “above the line” and “below the line” activities with respect to marketing communications? Explain the concept in detail.

Answer : Above-the-line

There are a number of approaches to promotion that are open to organisations. Above-the-line promotions use mass media methods. This type of promotion focuses on advertising to a large audience. It includes print, online media, television and cinema advertising.

 

As the fourth largest car company in the world, Kia is a big brand. It offers a range of products targeted at different market segments.kia-piccanto Above-the-line activities include adverts in the press. They also produce online banner advertisements, place advertisements on billboards and use their website to meet the needs of their consumers. Recent TV advertising campaigns have included the ‘small yet mighty’ cat for the new Picanto and the ‘future proof’ Kia cee’d, emphasising

 

 

 

5 Describe the AIDA model of consumer response hierarchy with the help of diagram.

 

Answer : The Hierarchy of Effects Model was created in 1961 by Robert J Lavidge and Gary A Steiner. This marketing communication model, suggests that there are six steps from viewing a product advertisement (advert) to product purchase. The job of the advertiser is to encourage the customer to go through the six steps and purchase the product.

 

Hierarchy Of Effects Model

 

 

 

The six steps are as follows:

 

Awareness

The customer becomes aware of the product through advertising. This is a challenging step, there is no guarantee that the customer will be aware of the product brand after they view the advert. Customers see many adverts

 

 

 

6 Describe some of the strategies for effective marketing and advertising in rural market.

 

Answer : In order to utilize the immense potential in rural markets companies need to develop specific marketing mix and action plans, taking into consideration the complex set of factors that influence consumer behaviour. Innovative companies which adopted an integrated approach have succeeded in utilizing marketing opportunities that rural areas offer.

 

Different rural marketing strategies in India

  1. Competitive strategy
    • Supplier: The company not only has to make high quality products but also has to sell them cheap. This can be achieved

 

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MK0015-Services Marketing and Customer Relationship Management

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL  2014
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4)

PGDROMN – (SEM 2)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0015-Services Marketing and Customer Relationship

Management

SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1808
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

1 “Positioning a service in the marketplace is much like positioning a product”. Explain Service positioning and its purpose with the help of an example.

 

Answer : Positioning of services :

The development of a sustainable positioning strategy for a product, service, division or company.  Each engagement utilizes the Four Forces of Positioning methodology. These projects include fresh articulation of market vision, competition analysis, market segmentation, positioning statement development, and identification of business model implications of positioning strategy.

 

Explanation :

Positioning strategy of services in based on following steps :

  1. Determining the levels of positioning: Step one is to settle on which level needs positioning attention and focus. For e.g. Vodafone has separate

 

 

2 Elaborate GAP analysis in detail.

 

Answer : In information technology, gap analysis is an assessment tool to help identify differences between information systems or applications. A gap is sometimes called “the space between where we are and where we want to be.”

 

A gap analysis helps bridge that space by highlighting which requirements are being met and which are not. The tool provides a foundation for measuring the investment of time, money and human resources that’s required to achieve a particular outcome.

 

In software development, for instance, a gap analysis can be used to document which services and/or functions have been accidentally left out, which ones have been deliberately eliminated and which still need to be developed. In compliance, a gap analysis can be used to compare what is required by law to what is currently being done.

 

 

 

 

3 “Interaction plays a lead role in building customer relationships”. Explain CIM in this context.

 

Answer : Computer-integrated manufacturing

A system in which individual engineering, production, and marketing and support functions of a manufacturing enterprise are organized into a computer-integrated system. Functional areas such as design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution are linked through the computer with factory floor functions such as materials handling and management, providing direct control and monitoring of all process operations.

 

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) may be viewed as the successor technology which links computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), robotics, numerically controlled machine tools (NCMT), automatic storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS), flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), and other computer-based manufacturing technology. Computer-integrated manufacturing is also known as integrated computer-aided manufacturing (ICAM). Autofacturing includes computer-integrated

 

 

 

4 What are the various types of conflicts in marketing services?

 

Answer : In the workplace, conflict is inevitable, usually occurring when one party perceives that their interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party. Conflict can produce either a positive or negative outcome. By being able to identify potential conflict before it arises and knowing how to effectively manage it, you will be able to help your staff increase the chances of turning conflict into a positive outcome. There are two types of conflict, functional and dysfunctional.

Functional conflicts

Functional conflicts are constructive, support your company’s goals, and improve performance. It generally involves people who are genuinely interested in solving a problem and are willing to listen to one another.

 

 

5 Elaborate the important steps that service providers should bear in mind while implementing one to one marketing.

Answer : Some of the important steps for implementing one-to-one marketing are as follows:

 

One-to-one marketing involves gearing the organization to deal with valuable customers on an individual basis. This is not unattainable, but the effort should be worth the benefits that accrue.

 

One-to-one or relationship marketing means being able and willing to change one’s behaviour towards individual customer based on what the customer tells the company and what else the company knows about that customer. The mechanics of one-to-one marketing are complex. It is one thing to train the sales staff to be warm and attentive, and quite another to identify, track and interact with an individual customer and then reconfigure product or service to meet that customer’s needs.

 

There are four important steps for implementing one-to-one marketing.

 

  1. Identifying the customers:

 

 

6 Write short notes on:

 

  1. a) E-CRM

Answer : Electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM) involves the integration of Web channels into the overall enterprise CRM strategy with the goal of driving consistency within all channels relative to sales, customer service and support (CSS) and marketing initiatives. It can support a seamless customer experience and maximize customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and revenue.

 

eCRM strategy components

 

When enterprises integrate their customer information, there are three eCRM strategy components:

  • Operational: Because of sharing information, the processes in business should make customer’s need as first and seamlessly implement. This avoids multiple times to bother customers and redundant process.
  • Analytical: Analysis helps company maintain a long-term relationship with customers.
  • Collaborative: Due to improved communication technology, different departments in company implement (intraorganizational) or work with business partners (interorganizational) more efficiently by sharing information.

 

ECRM is being adopted by companies because it increases customer loyalty and customer retention by improving customer satisfaction, one of the objectives of eCRM. E-loyalty results in long-term profits for online retailers because they incur less

 

 

 

  1. b) Customer Retention

Answer : Customer retention is on the minds of small and medium businesses across the world. With rising customer acquisition costs, businesses need to get innovative and start taking a proactive role in retaining their clients.

 

The consequences of customer retention also compound over time, and in sometimes unexpected ways. Even a tiny change in customer retention can cascade through a business system and multiply over time. The resulting effect on long-term profit and growth shouldn’t be underestimated.

 

 

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Elective: Logistics & Supply Chain Management (Part – 2)

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National Institute of Business Management

Chennai – 020

EMBA/ MBA

Elective: Logistics & Supply Chain Management (Part – 2)

 

 

Attend any 4 questions.  Each question carries 25 marks

(Each answer should be of minimum 2 pages / of 300 words)

 

  1. 1. Explain the characteristics features of inland waterways and maritime transport.

Answer: Inland waterways: Inland waterways are made up of navigable rivers, lakes, coastal creeks, lagoons and canals (Aderemo and Mogaji, 2010). The movement of goods and services along inland waterways is one of the oldest means of transporting goods and services from point to point (Fellinda, 2006) This is largely due to the fact that inland water transport (IWT) offers the most economical, energy efficient and environmental friendly means of transporting all types of cargo from place to place (Ojile, 2006). It also offers safer and cheaper rates in areas where water exist naturally. This facilitates commerce, promotes wealth creation, poverty alleviation, and creates job opportunities for youths within such regions. The ancillary sector of boat building industry also generates employment through active engagement of the youths in welding and fabrication process (Gray, 2004).

 

 

  1. 2. Explain the duties and responsibilities of stores personnel.

Answer: Interestingly, Stores is a function that is visible in probably any physical house. Be it a hotel, a hospital, a shop or industrial set up Stores is found every where.  Its presence every where adequately underlines the responsibility of Stores. Depending upon where it is located Stores has to burden from minor to major responsibilities.

The most common yet major responsibilities that are carried by any Stores are:

  • Receipt of incoming goods
  • Inspection of all receipts
  • Storage and preservation
  • Identification of all materials stored

 

  1. 3. Explain the role of Computer in Materials Management Planning.

Answer: Material requirements planning (MRP) is a production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems are software-based, while it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well.An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet three objectives:

  • Ensure materials are available for production and products are available for delivery to customers.
  • Maintain the lowest possible material and product levels in store
  • Plan manufacturing activities, delivery

 

 

  1. 4. What is the need for measurement of supply chain efficiency? How is it measured?Explain.

 

  1. 5. What is integrated logistics?Explain.

Answer: Integrated Logistics is the small package industry’s leading provider of Financial Management Tools for the Logistics and Supply Chain Professional. It is a System-wide management of entire logistics chain as a single entity, instead of separate management of individual logistical functions.

The logistics in the supply chain must anticipate the customers’ needs – this is integrated logistics. Definition: Is defined as “ the process of anticipating customer needs and wants; acquiring the capital, materials, people, technologies and

 

 

  1. 6. Write an essay on the Supply Chain Management for Global Competitiveness.

25 x 4=100 marks

 

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Elective: Logistics & Supply Chain Management (Part – 1)

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National Institute of Business Management

Chennai – 020

EMBA/ MBA

Elective: Logistics & Supply Chain Management (Part – 1)

 

 

Attend any 4 questions.  Each question carries 25 marks

(Each answer should be of minimum 2 pages / of 300 words)

 

  1. 1. Why depots are needed and what are its functions?Explain.
  2. 2.Explain why geographic region is important in logistics.

Answer: The growing flows of freight have been a fundamental component of contemporary changes in economic systems at the global, regional and local scales. These changes are not merely quantitative with more freight in circulation, but also structural and operational. Structural changes mainly involve manufacturing systems with their expanded geography of production, while operational changes mainly concern freight transportation with its geography of distribution, namely intermodal transport systems. As such, the fundamental question does not necessarily reside in the nature, origins and destinations of freight movements, but how this freight is moving. New modes of production are concomitant with new modes of distribution, which brings forward the realm of logistics; the science of physical distribution.

While many manufacturing corporations

 

 

  1. 3.Explain the application of place utility concept to rural markets.
  2. 4.Explain the strategy of Logistics.

Answer: Logistics is not confined to tactical decisions about transportation and warehousing.  Longer-term decisions are needed to put in place the capabilities that ensure that logistics plays a full role in supporting a company’s products in the market place.  As such capabilities increasingly involve partners in a supply chain, the implications of this ‘full role’ extend far beyond the boundaries of the company itself.  Logistics strategy is the set of guiding principles, driving forces and ingrained attitudes that help to coordinate goals, plans and policies between partners across a given supply chain.

 

 

  1. 5.What are the aims of Logistics? Explain its importance.

Answer: There was a time when companies used to develop a product range, plan their distribution channels, schedule marketing campaigns and deliver the final packaged items to their retailers themselves; a simple supplier-managed end-to-end supply chain, requiring a little more from logistics service providers than movement of products from factory to distribution centre to retail outlet. Over time, the scope of customer needs

 

  1. 6. Explain how logistics is integrated within an organization.

Answer: Prior to the 1950s, functions now accepted as logistics were generally viewed as facilitating or support work. Organization responsibility for logistics was typically dispersed throughout the firm. Such fragmented responsibility often meant that aspects of logistical work were performed without coordination, often resulting in duplication and waste. Logistical information was typically fragmented, distorted or delayed, and lines of authority and responsibility for overall logistics was diffused throughout the organization. Managers, recognizing the need for total cost control, began to reorganize and combine logistics functions into a single managerial group. Structuring logistics as an integrated organization first appeared in the

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25 x 4=100 marks

 

 

 

Elective – Logistics and Supply Chain Management

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Case Study Project               

  Total Marks: 100

 

 

Elective – Logistics and Supply Chain Management

 

 

If you are a Logistic Manager, how will you ensure that materials move into your organization from suppliers, through the operations within the organization and then out to customers (take any raw material as an example).

 

 

Answer : Moving materials into an organization from suppliers, through the operations within the organization and then out to customers , comes under supply chain management.

 

If your company makes a product from parts purchased from suppliers, and those products are sold to customers, then you have a supply chain. Some supply chains are simple, while others are rather complicated. The complexity of the supply chain will vary with the size of the business and the intricacy and numbers of items that are manufactured.

 

Logistics is the function responsible for the flow of materials from suppliers into an organization, through operations within the organization, and then out to customers.

 

 

The supply system includes the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods and services from the organization from its place of production to the place where it is required. This supply system is referred as ‘Logistics Management’

 

What is Supply Chain Management ?

 

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Assignments of One Year MBA SEMESTER – 1

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National Institute of Business Management

Ist Floor, Swathandrya Samara Smrithi Bhavan, Nandavanam Road

Palayam P.O. Trivandrum – 695 033

E-mail: admin@nibmglobal.com

0471- 4014294, 4014298

 

Assignments of One Year MBA

Semester – I

 

1.Principles and Practices of Management

 

How will you influence people to strive willingly for group objectives in your organization (target based industry)? Apply your interpersonal influence through communication process towards attaining your specialized goals?

 

Answer :  Motivating a group of people presents a challenge for every group leaders. Every individual has different motivating factors and you may be faced with a group of people who each need to be motivated in a different way. To get an entire group or team motivated to work on a project, special care must be  paid to the motivating factors used and the individual personalities of the  people who need to be motivated.

 

Step 1

Give the entire group a set focus. Whenever we are working with a group, it is essential to have everyone on the same page. It is also helpful if they can feel unified in reaching the end result of a project. If necessary, schedule regular team meetings to make sure that everyone in the group is motivated and working toward their individual goals as a part of the whole.

 

 

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2.Human Resources Management

 

The present state of recession in the IT Industry – as a Human Resource Manager how are you going to undertake Human Resource Planning at Macro Level to tide over this crisis?

 

Answer : HRM Role in Recession

The recession is healthy, from time to time. The recession helps to stop the businesses, which are not bringing value added and the human capital is transferred to more vital businesses at lower costs. In the companies, which survive the recession, the HRM Role is very important.

The recession is very dangerous for the companies. During the times, when the business grows dramatically, the HRM Function introduces different policies, which are focused on spending money. The company was able to carry all the costs and the employees started to take the policies as the standard.

In time of the recession, the HRM Role is to make cost cuts and the HRM Function has to provide the list of the policies and the procedures to be cancelled or discontinued. The employees do not like it, but the company has to return to the healthy basis for the future growth.

The HRM Function has to be able to identify the top potential in the organization quickly as the company needs to make the cuts in the human capital of the organization. The HRM Function needs to provide the tools to managers to inform their key employees about the security, the company wants to offer to key employees.

 

 

3.Financial Management

 

What will your outlook towards maintenance of liquid assets to ensure that the firm has adequate cash in hand to meet its obligations at all times?

 

Answer : Almost every action of company has financial implications, manager responsible for or with oversight of cash flow get directly involved in many functional areas of the business. Cash flow manager although in large company the financial management function may be broken down into various segments and the cash flow management segment may concern itself primarily with short term management issues, or the daily cash flow management task.Examples of these would be the maintenance of only minimum balance in non-interest bearing bank accounts, the movement of excess cash into short-term investment , and the maintenance of adequate cash balance to cover the normal operating expenses of the company that must be paid from day to day. In any event , those responsible for short term cash flow must consider the long term financial management objective of the company.

 

Objectives of the Financial Management

  1. To ensure that the company always has enough cash to meet its legal obligations and avoid illiquidity – i.e. to maintain adequate short term financial flexibility.
  2. To arrange to obtain whatever funds are

 

 

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4.Marketing Management

 

If you are working in a super market, what techniques/ tools you will use in data collection. How are you going to analysis the data and make inferences? How will you finally apply your market research to improve sales and win over customers?

 

Answer : Primary data-collection methods have been understood and studied to a great degree. For example, volumes can be written on the proper way to conduct a survey-based study. However, the process of collecting data from a retail establishment is not as well documented. This paper covers the tools and strategies used to collect weekly data in a retail environment and make some suggestions for future researchers so that they may avoid similar problems that occurred during the data collection and entry process.

In a traditional retail environment, prices and advertisements are not the only factors that are influence consumers’ purchasing behaviours. Factors such as product placement, display size, product appearance, etc., can all influence consumers’ decisions. Expanding on the classical economic-demand model, a study was developed to investigate how different retail marketing strategies influence consumers’ purchasing behaviours

 

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5.Organizational Behaviour

 

If you are made the campaign leader for a particular political party. How will you use your leadership skills to motivate your party men to ensure success of the party nominee in the elections? (Focus on the individual, motivate and apply leadership style).

 

Answer : “A leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they don’t necessarily want to go but ought to be.”

Bringing unity and coherence to a group of people is perhaps one of the most difficult tasks, which require effective leadership qualities. Be it politics, business or even sports, leaders are required in any situation that calls for a joint effort. Every leader has his / her own unique leadership style. Broadly speaking, there can be several effective leadership styles, which are as follows:

[A]          Effective Leadership Styles: Director’s Approach

This leadership style is somewhat authoritarian in its approach since the leader has a specific goal in mind and directs the team towards the goal according to his plan of action. The leader identifies the requirements of the situation and creates a plan to handle the situation. The leader is completely in charge of division of work and specifically assigns roles for each and every team member. In this style of leadership, the leader has the final word on all the decisions and rarely asks for suggestions from the team members. The leader, who uses a director’s approach for leading a team, usually supervises and evaluates the work of every individual.

 

 

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6.Principles of Economics

 

Suppose the price elasticity of demand for text books is two and the price of the text book is increased by 10%. By how much does the quantity demand fall? Inter the result and discuss reasons for the fall in quantity demand?

Answer : Price elasticity of demand (PED) is defined as the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price.

Price Elasticity of Demand

Percentage Change in Quantity Demand for product A

Percentage Change in Price for Product A

So,

Percentage Change in Quantity Demand for Product A

= PED X Percentage Change in Price for Product A

Given,  PED of Books= 2,

Percentage Change in Price for Books = 10%

So,

Percentage Change in Demand for Books

 

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Assignments and Case Study Project of One Year MBA Program SEMESTER – 2

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National Institute of Business Management

Ist Floor, Swathandrya Samara Smrithi Bhavan, Nandavanam Road

Palayam P.O. Trivandrum – 695 033

E-mail: admin@nibmglobal.com

0471- 4014294, 4014298

 

Assignments and Case Study Project of One Year MBA Program

 

Semester – II

 

1.International Law

 

What are your perceptions on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? Would you like to amend any of the articles or add a new article to the declaration?

 

Answer : OBJECTIVE:

Human rights are international norms that help to protect all people every where from severe political, legal and social abuse. Example of human rights are the right to reedom of religion, the right to a fair trail when charged with a crime, the right not to ne tortured, and the right to engage in political activity. These rights exist in morality and in law at the national and international levels. They are addressed primarily to overnments, requiring compliance and enforcement. The main sources of the contemporary conception of human rights are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948b) and the many human rights documents and treaties that followed in international organizations such as the United Nation, the Council of Europe, the Organization of America States, and the African Union.

 

  1. The General Idea of Human Rights:

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) sets out a list of over two dozen specific human rights that countries should respect and protect. These specific rights can be divided into six or more families: security rights that protect people

 

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2.Strategic Management

 

Select an appropriate generic strategy to position your printing business unit in its competitive environment (map the environment primarily as a pattern of competitive pressures from rivals, suppliers, buyers, entrants and substitutes).

 

Answer : Printing is one of the few industries that have defied inflationary pressure over the years. It is obvious from the above that no matter the size of the press, one can make it real big if they are professionally advised and properly guided during the conception and establishment period, employ the right personnel and engage in aggressive marketing and careful monitoring of the various aspects of the operations. The actual cost of setting up each will be determined when the investor has decided the scope of operations and the type of press he wants to establish.

 

Patronage for printing press services comes from individuals, corporate organisations, government agencies, politicians, big advertising houses, the various political parties, churches, mosques, institutions and parastatals of sorts. Others are advertising and public relations agencies and large organisations that do not have their internal advertisement and public relations departments. Not excluded are modeling agencies, educational institutions, authors, publishers, NGOs, international development agencies, events organisers,

 

 

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3.Business English

 

Write a letter to the Chief Election Commissioner, expressing your views on the disqualification of party candidates exempted from fighting elections. Express your views on the moral code of the candidates. How criminals or other offenders can be kept out of the pulling fray. What should be done to amend the laws on this by the parliament? (Your letter will belong to which category of communication)

 

Answer :

 

Date: 06.06.2010

 

To,

The Chief Election Commissioner,

Hyderabad.

 

Sir,

 

Subject: Views on Disqualification of a Party Candidate’s, Violation of moral code of candidates and Criminalization in Politics

 

After 60 years of India’s independence the lives of commoners is far worse than under Britishers. The benefits of independence have reached only few, thus creating islands of few ultra rich people surrounded by vast sea of utterly poor. The rich people in nexus with those in power are getting favourable laws enacted to suit their

 

 

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4.Management Information System

 

How will you plan a Management Information System in marketing information system taking into account the actions of antecedents or consequences of consumers, competitors, employers, institutions, suppliers, wholesalers, retailers, govt. bodies and NGO’s(Note you must also take into account the physical, technological, economic factors, beside legal and social taboos) (Take an example of your choice). 

 

Answer : An MIS may be defined as a set of procedures and methods for the regular, planned collection, analysis, and presentation of information for use in making marketing decisions.  This of course is a step beyond logistics systems, which handle inventory control, orders, and so forth.         It is désirable first to différentiâtes between the two major components of such systems – support systems and operating systems.  Support systems include those activities required to generate and manipulate data – i.e., market research and other data gathering, programming, and data processing. Operating systems are those that use the data as an aid to planning and controlling marketing activities.

 

The initial steps of this approach typically involve the following:

  1. Look at what systems the company already has in place,
  2. Determine what useful marketing information can be gleaned from those systems,
  3. Identify the information marketers need

 

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