MC0082- THEORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

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WINTER 2013, ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MCA(REVISED FALL 2007)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MC0082- THEORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
SEMESTER 5TH SEM
CREDITS 4
MAX. MARKS 60
BK ID

 

B0970

 

 

 

Answer all questions

 

1 Differentiate between Recursive Functions and growth functions.

 

Answer : What’s a Recursive Function?

 

Technically, a recursive function is a function that makes a call to itself. To prevent infinite recursion, you need an if-else statement (of some sort) where one branch makes a recursive call, and the other branch does not. The branch without a recursive call is usually the base case (base cases do not make recursive calls to the function).

Functions can also be mutually recursive. For example, function f() can call function g() and function g() can call function f(). This is still considered recursion because a function can eventually call itself. In this case, f() indirectly calls itself.

 

 

2. Describe direct and indirect proof techniques.

 

Ans : Direct proof :

 

In mathematics and logic, a direct proof is a way of showing the truth or falsehood of a given statement by a straightforward combination of established facts, usually existing lemmas and theorems, without making any further assumptions. In order to directly prove a conditional statement of the form “If p, then q”, it suffices to consider the situations in which the statement p is true. Logical deduction is employed to reason from assumptions to conclusion. The type of logic employed is almost invariably first-order logic, employing the quantifiers for all and there exists. Common proof rules used are modus ponens and universal instantiation.

 

 

 

3. Discuss about Walks and Paths in Trees

 

Ans :  Walks and Paths in Trees :

 

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a path graph or linear graph is a particularly simple example of a tree, namely a tree with two or more vertices that is not branched at all, that is, contains only vertices of degree 2 and 1. In particular, it has two terminal vertices (vertices that have degree 1), while all others (if any) have degree 2.

A path in a graph is a sequence of vertices such that from each of its vertices there is an edge to the next vertex in the sequence. A path may be

 

4. What is DFA? Discuss about Transition System.

 

Ans :  DFA :

 

In automata theory, a branch of theoretical computer science, a deterministic finite automaton (DFA)—also known as deterministic finite state machine—is a finite state machine that accepts/rejects finite strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation (or run) of the automaton for each input string.’Deterministic’ refers to the uniqueness of the computation. In search of simplest models to capture the

 

 

5.  Differentiate between Moore machine and Mealy machine.

 

Ans :  Moore machine :

 

In the theory of computation, a Moore machine is a finite-state machine whose output values are determined solely by its current state. This is in contrast to a Mealy machine, whose output values are determined both by its current state and by the values of its inputs. The Moore machine is named after Edward F. Moore, who presented the concept in a 1956 paper, “Gedanken-experiments on Sequential Machines.

 

 

 

6. Define context-free grammar. What is an ambiguous grammar? Explain with an example.

 

Ans : Ambiguous grammer :

 

In computer science, an ambiguous grammar is a formal grammar for which there exists a string that can have more than one leftmost derivation, while an unambiguous grammar is a formal grammar for which every valid string has a unique leftmost derivation. Many languages admit both ambiguous and unambiguous grammars, while some languages admit only ambiguous grammars. Any non-empty language admits an ambiguous grammar by

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BNT403 – WEB TECHNOLOGIES

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ASSIGNMENT

 

WINTER 2013
PROGRAM BSc NT
SEMESTER iv
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BNT403 – WEB TECHNOLOGIES
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1547
MAX. MARKS 60

 

Questions

 

1. Describe the following:’

 

a) TCP

Answer : TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a set of rules (protocol) used along with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is

 

 

 

b) IP

Answer : What is an IP address?

 

The IP Address is a unique number assigned to your computer connection by your home or office or employer’s Internet Service Provider (ISP). This unique number serves as the ID of your connection when it’s accessing the Internet. It functions like your street address—if someone wants to send you mail or you order a pizza, your address is needed for the postman or delivery person to find your home. The same process applies to your computer, your IP address is used to route information from the Internet to your computer.

 

 

c) UDP

Answer : UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a communications protocol that offers a limited amount of service when messages are exchanged between computers in a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP). UDP is an alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and, together with IP, is sometimes referred to as UDP/IP. Like the

 

 

d) FTP

Answer : File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet’s TCP/

 

 

e) HTTP

Answer : HTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol

 

Short for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page.

 

 

 

2.Define DHTML. Explain any four components of DHTML

Answer : Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is an umbrella term for a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites[1] by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (such as CSS), and the Document Object Model.

 

 

 

3.What is event driven programming? Explain the three types of patterns in event-driven programming.

Answer : An event-driven application or programming is a computer program that is written to respond to actions generated by the user or the system. In a computing context, an event is any identifiable occurrence that has significance for system hardware or software. As such, events include both user-generated actions like mouse clicks and keystrokes and system-generated events such as program loading.

 

 

 

4.List and explain XMLHttpRequest object properties

 

Answer : The XMLHttpRequest Object

 

The XMLHttpRequest object is used to exchange data with a server behind the scenes.

 

The XMLHttpRequest object is the developers dream, because you can:

 

 

 

5.Explain three types of array supported by PHP with an appropriate example.

Answer : An array is used to store multiple values in one variable.

 

When To Use An Array

 

Arrays are used when you want to group many similar variables. For example, you may want to create a variable for a color. Instead of creating 5 different variables, each with its own color, you can create an array of colors.

 

 

 

6.What is application object? Explain any three methods of application objects.

 

Answer : Application Object

An application on the Web may consist of several ASP files that work together to perform some purpose. The Application object is used to tie these files together.

 

The Application object is used to store and access variables from any page, just like the Session object. The difference is that ALL users share ONE Application object (with Sessions there is ONE Session object for EACH user).

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BNT402 – E-COMMERCE

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ASSIGNMENT

 

WINTER 2013
PROGRAM BSc NT
SEMESTER iv
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BNT402 – E-COMMERCE
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1186
MAX. MARKS 60

 

Questions

 

1 Define E-Commerce. List any eight benefits of E-Commerce

Answer : When you read the following list of advantages of ecommerce for businesses and customers, you will get the sense that ecommerce is the holy grail of retail. To see the other side of the coin, do not miss out on my article about the disadvantages of ecommerce.

 

1. Overcome Geographical Limitations

If you have a physical store, you are limited by the geographical area that you can service. With an ecommerce website, the whole world is your playground. Additionally, the advent of mcommerce, i.e., ecommerce on mobile devices, has dissolved every remaining limitation of geography.

2. Gain New Customers With Search Engine Visibility

Physical retail is driven by branding and

 

 

 

2 Explain four primary function of Portal. Also its give advantages.

 

Answer : Traditionally, a portal denotes a gate, a door, or entrance. In the context of the World Wide Web, it is the next logical step in the evolution to a digital culture. Web pages are not completely self-referential anymore, but allow for personalization, workflow, notification, knowledge management and groupware, infrastructure functionality, and integration of information and applications. The idea of a portal is to collect information from different sources and create a single point of access to information – a library of categorized and personalized content. It is very much the idea of a personalized filter into the web.

 

 

 

 

 

3 Brief the following

a. Telnet

Answer : Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers. Through Telnet, an administrator or another user can access someone else’s computer remotely. On the Web, HTTP and FTP protocols allow you to request specific files from remote computers, but not to actually be

 

 

 

b. POP

Answer : In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.POP has been developed

 

 

 

4 What are the features of Knowledge Management Tools? Explain Knowledge Management Strategies for Different Organizations?

Answer : Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a (generally IT based) system for managing knowledge in organizations for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. It can comprise a part (neither necessary nor sufficient) of a Knowledge Management initiative.

 

 

 

5 Discuss any five modern payment systems

Answer : A payment is the transfer of an item of value from one party (such as a person or company) to another in exchange for the provision of goods, services or both, or to fulfill a legal obligation.

The simplest and oldest form of payment is barter, the exchange of one good or service for another. In the modern world, common means of payment by an individual include money, cheque, debit, credit, or bank transfer, and in trade such payments are frequently preceded by an invoice or result in a receipt. However, there are no arbitrary limits on the form a payment can take and thus in complex transactions between businesses, payments may take the form of stock or other more complicated arrangements.

 

 

6 Define supply chain management? Explain any four major functions of supply chain management.

Answer : Supply chain refers to all the facilities and processes used in supply of goods and services; from procurement of raw material, through manufacturing operations, up to delivery to final user, and supply chain management (SCM) refers to Management of all operations within a company impacting and interfacing other sections of the supply chain to improve entire supply chain performance.

 

The main functions and components of SCM include:

 

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BNT401-MULTIMEDIA NETWORKING

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ASSIGNMENT

 

WINTER 2013
PROGRAM BSc NT
SEMESTER iv
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BNT401-MULTIMEDIA NETWORKING
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1553
MAX. MARKS 60

 

 

Q.1. What is compression? Brief the factors that involved in the compression scheme. List the compression methods for different types of media

 

Answer : Compression :

 

In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use, through use of specific encoding schemes. In computing, data reduplication is a specialized data compression technique for eliminating coarse-grained redundant data, typically to improve storage utilization. Compression is useful because it helps reduce the consumption of expensive resources, such as

 

 

Q.2. Discuss any five tasks of TCP in communication service

 

Answer :  Despite the complexity of TCP, its basic operation can be reasonably simplified by describing its primary functions. The following are what I believe to be the five main tasks that TCP performs:

 

1. Addressing/Multiplexing:

 

 

 

Q.3. What is group communication? Discuss any three method or technique used by the communication agent for collaboration

 

Answer :

 

The efficient transmission of multimedia is a key component in current and future services. The work of the Multimedia Communications Group in this area focuses on the interaction between video coding and the transmission characteristics of wired and wireless networks including used protocols and error protection mechanisms. For the

 

 

 

Q.4. What are called QoS mechanism? Explain any two QoS mechanism based on bandwidth management

 

Answer : QoS mechanism :

 

QoS mechanisms provide improved service to network users while enabling the network administrator to manage network resources efficiently. These mechanisms include both traffic handling mechanisms and provisioning and configuration mechanisms. Traffic handling mechanisms include queuing algorithms and packet classification. These may be applied to aggregates of traffic or to per-conversation traffic flows. Provisioning

 

Q.5. What is VOIP? Discuss any four challenges faced by the VOIP

 

Answer :  VOIP :

 

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, IP communications, and broadband phone service.

The term Internet telephony specifically refers to the provisioning of communications services (voice, fax, SMS, voice-messaging) over the

 

 

Q.6. Discuss any five DRM technique in brief

 

Answer :  Digital Rights Management (DRM) is a class of technologies that are used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders, and individuals with the intent to control the use of digital content and devices after sale; there are, however, many competing definitions.

 

DRM systems typically include the following techniques:

 

 

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BT0063 – MATHEMATICS FOR IT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

WINTER 2013
PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER 1
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0063 – MATHEMATICS FOR IT
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0950
MAX. MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Eachquestion is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

Q.1 (i) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8}. Find A – B and B – A.

(ii) In a group of 50 people, 35 speak Hindi, 25 speak both English and Hindi and all the people speak at least one of the two languages. How many people speak only English and not Hindi?

How many people speak English?

 

Answer:

(i) A-B

 

 

 

 

(ii)  n (A U B )= people who speak in either Hindi and English.

Given people speak at least one of the languages.

n (A U B) = 50.

 

Q.2 (i) Express 7920 in radians and (7π/12) c in degrees.

(ii) Prove that (tan θ + sec θ – 1)/ (tan θ + sec θ +1) = Cos θ / (1-sin θ) = (1+sin θ)/ Cos θ

Answer: (i) The conversion is 180O= π radian

So 79200 = (7920*3.14)/180 = 138.247 radians

(7π/12) c in degrees:-

 

 

(ii). Solution:-

(tan θ + sec θ – 1)/ (tan θ + sec θ +1) =(1+sin θ)/ Cos θ

If (tan θ + sec θ – 1)/ (

 

 

 

Q.3 (i) Define continuity of a point                      

(ii) Test the continuity of the function f where f is defined by f(x) = {x-2/|x-2| if x ≠ 2, 7 if x = 2.

 

Answer: (i) Definition of Continuity

Let a be a point in the domain of the function f(x). Then f is continuous at x=a if and only if

lim f(x) = f(a)

x –> a

 

 

(ii) Test the continuity of the function f where f is defined by f(x) = {x-2/|x-2| if x ≠ 2, 7 if x = 2.

Solution:-L.H.L =limx tends to (x-2)/|x-2|

Put x = 2-h , h=0

 

 

Q.4 Solve dy/dx = (y+x-2)/(y-x-4).

Answer:dy/dx = (y+x-2)/(y-x-4) ——————————– (i)

Put y = vx

Diff w.r.t “x”

 

 

Q.5 (i) a bag contains two red balls, three blue balls and five green balls.

Three balls are drawn at random. Find the probability that

a) The three balls are of different colors’.

b) Two balls are of the same color.

Let nCk = number of ways to pick up k items from a set of n items.

Of course you should already know that nCk+=+n%21%2F%28k%21%2A%28n-k%29%21%29 (*)

Bag consists of 2 red balls (R), 3 blue balls (

 

Q.6 Solve:  2x + 3y + 4z = 20, x + y + 2z = 9, 3x + 2y + z = 10.

Answer: These equations are written as

 

[2 3 4                                     [20

1 1 2                 =                 9

3 2 1]                                   10]

AX = B

Where A = [2 3 4 , 1 1 2 , 3 2 1 ]  X =[

 

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BT0066 – Database Management Systems

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ASSIGNMENT

 

WINTER

2013

PROGRAM

BSc IT

SEMESTER

FIRST

SUBJECT CODE & NAME

BT0066, Database Management Systems

CREDIT

3

BK ID

B0950

MAX. MARKS

60

 

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Eachquestion is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q.1 what is DBMS? Why it is required?

 

Answer: A database management system is the software system that allows users to define, create and maintain a database and provides controlled access to the data.

 

A Database Management System (DBMS) is basically a collection of programs that enables users to store, modify, and extract information from a database as per the requirements. DBMS is an intermediate layer between programs and the data. Programs access the DBMS, which then accesses the data. There are different types of DBMS

 

 

 

 

Q.2Explain MySQL architecture with diagram.

 

Answer:MySQL’s architecture consists of a web of interrelated function sets, which work together to fulfil the various needs of the database server. A number of authors3 have implied that these function sets are indeed components, or entirely encapsulated packages; however, there is little evidence in the source code that this is the case.

 

Indeed, the architecture includes separate function libraries, composed of functions that handle similar tasks, but there is not, in the traditional object-oriented programming sense, a full component-level separation of functionality. By this, we mean that

 

 

 

Q.3Differentiate between fixed and variable length records.

 

Answer:    In the Fixed Length record is set to a certain length and the location is simply calculated in the Variable Length Record the record size is irrelevant because all records are indexed sequentially in a header record.Variable length record is the record contain different format (length) but the first 4 bytes taking length of record. The fixed length record must be declaring length otherwise throw the error.so after fill the records md fields’fill up the filler clause.Fixed length means the length of all records in the file is

Same.so we code record length is x chrs

 

 

 

Q.4 Write an sql query to create the table named employee with the following attributes:

 

Employee number – not null

Employee name

Department id

Make employee number as primary key.

 

Answer: Employee Table (EMPLOYEE)

The employee table identifies all employees by an employee number and lists basic personnel information. The employee table is created with the following CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements:

 

 

 

 

 

Q.5  Explain First Normal form and Second Normal Form.

 

Answer: First normal form (1NF) is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form if the domain of each attribute contains only atomic values, and the value of each attribute contains only a single value from that domain.Second normal form (2NF) is a normal form used in database normalization. 2NF was originally defined by E.F. Codd in 1971.

 

 

 

 

Q.6 what is object oriented database system? Explain.

 

Answer:An object-oriented database is a database that subscribes to a model with information represented by objects. Object-oriented databases are a niche offering in the relational database management system (RDBMS) field and are not as successful or well-known as mainstream database engines.

 

A system offering DBMS facilities in an object-oriented programming environment. Data is stored as objects and can be interpreted only using the methods specified by its class. The relationship between similar objects is preserved (inheritance) as are references between objects. Queries can be faster because joins are often not needed (as in a

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BT0065 – C Programming and Data Structures

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ASSIGNMENT

 

WINTER

2013

PROGRAM

BSc IT

SEMESTER

FIRST

SUBJECT CODE & NAME

BT0065, C Programming and Data Structures

CREDIT

3

BK ID

B0950

MAX. MARKS

60

 

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Q.1Compute the values of a and b:

int a;

int b;

a=1;

b=a++;

a. What value does the variable b have after ALL of the code above executes?

b. What value does the variable a have after ALL of the code above executes?

 

Answer:-

(a)    The  value of variable b have after ALL of the code above executes:-

b=1

 

(b)   The  value of variable a have after ALL of the code above executes:-

a=2

2Compute the values of X and Y.

 

a. What value does the variable z have after ALL of the code above executes?

b. What value does the variable y have after ALL of the code above executes?

 

Answer:-

(a)                The value of variable b have after ALL of the code above executes:-

 

 

 

(b)               The  value of variable b have after ALL of the code above executes:-

 

 

Q.2Write a program and draw a flowchart to print 1 to 100 all natural numbers.

 

Answer:-

#include<stdio.h>

#include<

 

 

Q.3Explain while and do-while statement with an example.

 

Answer:-WHILE – WHILE loops are very simple. The basic structure is

 

while ( condition ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The true represents a boolean expression which could be x == 1 or while ( x != 7 ) (x does not equal 7). It can be any combination of Boolean statements that are legal. Even, (while x ==5 || v == 7) which says execute the code while x equals five or while v equals 7. Notice that a while loop is like a stripped-down version of a for loop– it has no initialization or

 

 

Q.4Distinguish library functions and user defined functions.

 

Answer:-library functions :- A library function has been written by someone else, and is reusuable by many programmers to solve the same problem over and over.  standard fuction is pre define fuction like getch(),clrscr(), in c++ and These functions are also called as ‘library functions’. These functions are provided by system. These functions are stored in library files. e.g.

 

scanf()

 

 

 

Q.5 Convert the following infix expressions into postfix showing stack status at each step.

1. a+b*c-d/e*f                                                                                                                 

2. a+(b*c) –d

 

Answer: -In order to convert infix to postfix expression, we need to understand the precedence of operators first.

 

Precedence of Operators

There are five binary operators, called addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation. We are aware of some other binary operators

 

 

Q.6 what is spanning tree? Explain Prim’s algorithm for minimum spanning tree.

 

Answer: -spanning tree:- In the mathematical field of graph theory, a spanning tree T of a connected, undirected graph G is a tree that includes all of the vertices and some or all of the edges of G.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prim’s algorithm for minimum spanning tree:-Prim’s algorithm closely resembles Dijkstra’s algorithm because they both rely on a similar approach of finding the “next closest” vertex. Prim’s algorithm slowly grows a minimum spanning tree, starting from

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