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BK ID BK ID -B1481



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.1. Write short notes on:

  1. LAN
  2. Analog and digital data transmission
  3. High level data link control


Ans : a)   Local Area Network (LAN):


These types of computer networks connect network devices over a relatively short distance. Quite often, a networked office building, home or school contains a single LAN although it is normal to come across a building that contains a few small LANs. On a few occasions, a LAN may also span over a group of nearby buildings. Such computer networks are usually owned by one organisation.

LANs consist of two broadcast networks namely Bus topology and Ring topology. In ring topology the computers and other network devices are connected to each other in the form of a ring or a circle.




  1. Analog and digital data transmission :


Analog data transmission:


Analog (or analogue) transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a



  1. High level data link control:


High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The original ISO standards for HDLC are:

ISO 3309 – Frame Structure

ISO 4335 – Elements of Procedure

ISO 6159 – Unbalanced Classes of



Q2. Videoconferencing is used to conduct meetings with the people who are located in far distance. Videoconferencing is an example of which type of computer networks? Explain in detail the different types of networks with example.

Answer :Videoconferencing type :

The wide area network (WAN) is a critical component of the infrastructure supporting video conferencing

Conducting a conference between two or more participants at different sites by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data. For example, a point-to-point (two-person) video conferencing system works much like a video telephone. Each participant has a video camera, microphone, and speakers mounted on his or her computer. As the two participants speak to one another, their voices are carried over the network and delivered to the other’s speakers, and whatever images appear in front of the video camera appear in a window on the other participant’s monitor. The quality of a video



Q3. A protocol helps in establishing the communication between two systems. Protocols are mainly divided into asynchronous and synchronous protocols. List and describe in detail the different types of protocols that are classified under the two main protocols.

Answer : Different types of protocols :

Two main classes of protocols are :

File retrieval protocols

This type of service was one of the earliest ways of retrieving information from computers connected to the Internet. You could view the names of the files stored on the serving computer, but you didn’t have any type of graphics and sometimes no description of a file’s content. You would need to have advanced knowledge of which files contained the information you sought.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

This was one of the first Internet services




Q.4. Integrated Services for Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for

Simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. Explain the different types of ISDN with their features and advantages for each one of them. (Explaining Two different types , Features of both of them , Advantages of both of them) 2,4,4


ANS: Different types of ISDN :


Integrated services refers to ISDN’s ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single line. Multiple devices can be attached to the line, and used as needed. That




Q.5. ABC company is an internet service provider. The main goal of ABC is to provide 24 X7X365 storage capacity, storage management and internet service to the customers. It now needs a solution that will eliminate downtime. Downtime is nothing but the time during which a computer or computer system is down, or inoperative due to hardware or software failure. We also need the flexibility in quick response to both the development in customer base and additional capacity and service demands of the customers. ABC company took the help of network storage infrastructure software provider to achieve their goals by providing support for end to end redundancy and bondless scalability. By creating a scalable storage network with the ability to confidentially deliver the 24X7X365 reliability, and speed that outsourcing customers demand, it has enabled the ISP/SSP to attract and retain customers and substantially build its business. As the same time, the solution has effectively lowered ABC company’s total cost of ownership for its entire storage solution: the IP Stor/CNP union has enabled a painless, flexible cost effective, scalable solution. The complementary IP Stor/CNT solution has allowed to its customers easily and cost- effectively. a. What were the problem which ABC Company was facing before consulting network storage infrastructure software provider?

  1. What were the benefits of implementing a scalable storage network?
  2. List the different classes of ISPs and their applications.


Ans : The problems faced by ABC Company after reading the SLM


The important issue to address while choosing connectivity solutions is, whether application servers are being connected to storage or disparate networks are being interconnected. The key factors to be considered are elimination of single points of failure, high scalability, and ease of set up. The FalcoStor’s IP Stor software solution, a leading network storage infrastructure software provider, helped ABC Company to achieve their goal by providing support for End-to-End redundancy and bondless scalability. The ISP/SSP found its high availability Fiber Channel SAN solution in the synergy between FalcoStor’s highly scalable IP Stor




Q6. How are the different topologies of computer networks arranged? Explain the working of each of them

Answer :Topologies :

Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer or biological network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network, and may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology refers to the placement of the network’s various components, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology shows how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, and/or

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BK ID B1219



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should not exceed 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q1. a. Emergency Medical Association (EMA) is a group of 250 board- certified emergency physicians. They are responsible for effectively managing the emergency departments. List out what BI values and applications they should be implementing.

Answer: BI values and applications: Business intelligence (BI) is the transformation of raw data into meaningful and useful information for business analysis purposes. BI can handle enormous amounts of unstructured data to help identify, develop and otherwise create new strategic business opportunities. BI allows for the easy interpretation of volumes of data. Identifying new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.

In today’s healthcare environment, organizations are swimming in an ever-deeper pool of data yet many lack the technology to use this data as valuable




  1. Most of the credit card companies permit a consumer to get approval for specified amounts via mobile to ensure that the purchase is covered. This type of consumer support which retains a customer to the bank for a longer time is real time business intelligence. Define real time Business intelligence and the various steps involved in the process.

Answer: Real time business intelligence:

Real-time business intelligence (RTBI) is the process of delivering information about business operations as they occur. The speed of today’s processing systems has moved classical data warehousing into the realm of real-time. The result is real-time business intelligence. Business transactions as they occur are fed to a real-time business intelligence system that maintains the current state of the enterprise. The RTBI system not only supports the classic strategic functions of data warehousing for deriving information and knowledge from past enterprise activity, but it also provides real-time tactical support to drive enterprise actions that react immediately to events as they occur. As such,



Q2. Today businesses largely rely on the information available and can be communicated through various sources, both internally and externally with the help of internet. Explain the role of Business Intelligence in modern business. What are the three different types of decision that most business organisations take?


Answer: Role of business intelligence in modern business : Business intelligence needs suitable analytical tools to assist in gathering information. The business intelligence solutions should be contemplated carefully, and the system opted for should prove to be consistent. Even if you add new data or new systems, or bring about major changes, business intelligence systems have to steer the company to success. Steering to accomplishment is done by integrating the new data with the existing business intelligence systems is one of the significant elements of this intelligence solution. Creating or developing data warehouses consume time, money and energy, whereas creating the data



Q.3. Data extraction is the act or the process of extracting data out of data sources for added data processing or data storage or data migration. This data can be extracted from the web. Explain the different techniques for data extraction. (Listing the various techniques, Explaining the four methods) 2,8


Ans: Listing the various techniques:


  • The Logical Extraction Methods
  • Physical Extraction Methods
  • Change Data Capture
  • Extracting data from the operational systems


Explaining the four methods :


  1. Logical Extraction Methods



Q.4. Business Intelligence strategy summarizes the finest combination of procedures and technologies to meet the business intelligence strategies of an organization.

  1. List the main aspects of BI strategy.
  2. What are the steps to be followed to implement BI framework?


Ans : a) Business intelligence (BI) continues to be the top investment priority for CIOs. An effective BI approach can benefit your IT and line of business (LOB) teams alike.


Four aspects of BI framework:-


  1. Determine information needs by business user, business analyst, and BI analyst / designer. The purpose of BI is to provide cross-



  1. What are the steps to be followed to implement BI framework?


BI Methodology


Project Initiation:  Agrees and documents the scope, application and data landscape, executive sponsorship, project team roles & responsibilities, high-level project timeline in a project initiation document (PID).


Analysis: The most challenging part of any BI




Q.5. Write short note on:

  1. Content Management System
  2. End User Segmentation
  3. Basic Reporting and querying
  4. OLAP


Ans: a) Content Management System (CMS):- A content management system (CMS)[1][2][3] is a computer program that allows publishing, editing and modifying content as well as maintenance from a central interface. Such systems of content management provide procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment

A content



  1. End User Segmentation :


There are user types delineated by application requirements and by

skill. If we look at the users in light of their application requirements, we normally see

three distinct types:

  • Traditional query and reporting



  1. Basic Reporting and querying:


A querying and reporting tool helps to run regular reports, create organized listings, and perform cross-tabular reporting and querying.

The use of SQL as the basis for most querying and reporting tools was both good and bad for data warehousing. On the


  1. OLAP:


OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) is characterized by relatively low volume of transactions. Queries are often very complex and involve aggregations. For OLAP systems a response time is an effectiveness measure. OLAP applications are widely used by Data Mining techniques. In OLAP database there is aggregated, historical data, stored in multi-dimensional schemas (usually star schema). OLAP can be used for data mining or the discovery of previously undiscerned relationships between data items. An OLAP database does not need to be as large as a data warehouse, since not all transactional data is needed for trend analysis. Using Open Database Connectivity (ODBC), data can be imported from existing relational databases to create a multidimensional database for OLAP.





Q6 . According to a recent IDC report, knowledge management is in a state of high growth, especially among the business and legal services industries. As the performance metrics of early adopters are documenting the substantial benefits of knowledge management, more organizations are recognizing the value of leveraging organizational knowledge. Define Knowledge Management. Explain the various characteristics of Knowledge management. What are knowledge assets?

Answer : Knowledge Management : Knowledge management (KM) is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organisational knowledge. It refers to a multi-disciplined approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.


An established discipline since 1991 KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, and library and information sciences .More recently, other fields have started contributing to KM research; these include information and media, computer science, public health, and public policy. Columbia University and Kent State University offer dedicated Master of Science degrees in Knowledge Management

Knowledge management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organisation to identify, create, represent, distribute, and

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MK0018– International Marketing

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SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0018– International Marketing
BK ID B1199


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.NO.1 Discuss the different management orientations of a company. How does it affect international marketing?


Answer : Marketing Concept

One of the five marketing management orientations is the marketing concept. The marketing concept is based on the belief that a company must create, deliver and market products more efficiently than the competition in order to turn a profit. To implement this concept, managers focus on researching the target market and customer’s needs along with marketing the product in an integrated manner.





Q.2. Discuss how culture plays an important role in international marketing. Give some examples of advertisements which failed due to lack of cultural understanding.


Answer : How Culture Plays an Important Role in Global Marketing

When it comes to branding yourself to a domestic market, your ability to connect with your target audience is greatly enhanced by sharing a common language and culture with them. Conversely, branding to markets beyond your borders is another story and presents a unique set of linguistic and cultural challenges that must be addressed and overcome.

Lost in Translation                                                 

Perhaps the biggest obstacle to cross-cultural personal branding success is a lack of understanding of how people communicate in other cultures. In fact,


Q3.  Explain different types of cost based pricing.


Answer: Cost-based pricing involves calculating the cost of the product, and then adding a percentage mark-up to determine price.


Cost-plus pricing is the simplest pricing method. A firm calculates the cost of producing the product and adds on a percentage (profit) to that price to give the selling price. This appears in two forms: the first, full cost pricing, takes into consideration both variable and fixed costs and adds a % markup. The other is direct cost pricing, which is variable costs plus a % markup. The latter is only used in periods of high competition as this method usually leads to a loss in the long run.This method, although simple, does not take demand into account, and there is no way of determining if potential customers will purchase the product at



Q4. Tobacco companies are targeting China as Chinese are heavy smokers. Which segmentation is this and what are the other international market segmentations?



Market segmentation is the process in marketing of dividing a market into distinct subsets (segments) that behave in the same way or have similar needs. Because each segment is fairly homogeneous in their needs and attitudes, they are likely to respond similarly to a given marketing strategy. That is, they are likely to have similar feelings and ideas about a marketing mix comprised of a given product or service, sold at a given price, distributed in a certain way, and promoted in a certain way. Broadly, markets can be divided according to a number of general criteria, such as by industry or public versus private sector. Small segments are often termed niche markets or specialty markets. However, all segments fall into either consumer or industrial markets. Although it has similar objectives and it overlaps with consumer






5 Write short notes on:


  1. a) e Marketing

Answer : E-marketing refers to the use of the Internet and digital media capabilities to help sell your products or services. These digital technologies are a valuable addition to traditional marketing approaches regardless of the size and type of your business. E-marketing is also referred to as Internet marketing (i-marketing), online marketing or web-marketing.


As with conventional marketing, e-marketing is creating a strategy that helps businesses deliver the right messages and product/services to the right audience. It consists of all activities and processes with the purpose of finding, attracting, winning and retaining customers. What has changed is its wider scope and options compared to conventional marketing methods.


E-marketing is deemed to be broad in scope, because it not only refers to marketing and promotions over the Internet, but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media. E-marketing also embraces the management of digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) and several other business management functions.



Q6. Discuss the role and activities of World Bank.


Answer: As a development institution, the World Bank supports two broad goals in South East Europe: (i) poverty reduction and (ii) economic and social development, the latter in support of the countries ambition to join the Europen Union. The central vehicle for supporting the national reform program of each country is the so-called Country Assistance Strategy (CAS). Based on an assessment of the country’s priorities, past portfolio performance and creditworthiness, the CAS sets strategic priorities and determines the level and composition of financial and technical assistance that the Bank seeks to provide the country. The


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SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0017-E-Marketing
BK ID B1810



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


2  What is e-mall? Explain the various types of online stores in an e-mall.

Answer : E-Mall is the first online marketplace in Arabic and English and one of the projects of Saudi Post, giving E-Mall an advantage. E-Mall users come from different countries and professions and ages and different cultures.


An e-mall provides common ground for several e-shops. It can be designed using several transaction models, according to what type of services the e-mall owner wants to offer. The owner also has to take care of the e-mall’s marketing, so choosing the right e-mall is a vital decision for an e-shop owner. The right e-mall is defined as an e-mall with a




2 An electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) refers to a website created for common interest. It integrates the online and physical component of a company. Discuss the five kinds of partners in an e-marketplace.


Answer : an Internet-based environment that brings together business-to-business buyers and sellers so that they can trade more efficiently online.


The key benefits for users of an e-marketplace are reduced purchasing costs, greater flexibility, saved time, better information, and better collaboration. However, the drawbacks include costs in changing procurement processes, cost of applications, set-up, and integration with internal systems, and transaction/subscription fees.


There are three distinct types of e-marketplace: independent, in which public environments seek simply to attract buyers and sellers to trade together; consortium-based, in which sites are established on an industry-wide basis, typically when a number of key buyers in a particular industry get together; and private, in which e-marketplaces are established by a particular organization to manage its purchasing alone.




3 Discuss the major legal and ethical issues in e-marketing.

  1. Legal issues
  2. Ethical issues

Answer :


Ethical Issues 


In general, many ethical and global issues of Information Technology apply to e-business. So, what are the issues particularly related to e-commerce? Let’s list some of the ethical issues spawned with the growing field of e-commerce.


Web tracking


E-businesses draw information on how visitors use a site through log files. Analysis of log file means turning log data into application service or installing software that can pluck relevant information from files in-house. Companies track individual’s




Q4. Explain the factors that influence e-consumer’s buying behaviour.


Answer :  Explain the factors that influence e-consumer’s buying behaviour.

Answer : You can build what you think is the best store in the world. But if you fail to align it with standard online customer behavior, you won’t make many sales.


There is an unbelievable amount of information you need to know to sell online.


You must learn everything about your products and niche you want to operate in. You need at least some basic understanding of the technology behind the store too. Then there’s marketing: you must know how to promote the store. Chances are that you will be doing that on your own for a good while.




5 Functions of E-marketing are represented by 2P+2C+3S formula (Personalisation, privacy, customer service, community, site, security, and sales promotion). These functions form the framework of an e-marketing strategy. Discuss this formula with a diagrammatic representation.


Answer : e-Marketing is still quite a controversial subject to talk about, since no one succeeded to unify the various theories around it; however there is one thing upon which there is no doubt – that e-Marketing first appeared under the form of various techniques deployed by pioneer companies selling their products via the internet in the early 90’s.


e-Marketing Strategy


The e-Marketing Strategy is normally based and built upon the principles that govern the traditional, offline Marketing – the well-known 4 P’s (Product – Price – Promotion – Positioning) that form the classic Marketing mix. Add the extra 3 P’s (People – Processes – Proof) and you got the whole extended Marketing mix.


Until here, there are no much aspects to differentiate e-Marketing from the traditional Marketing performed offline: the extended Marketing mix (4 3 P’s) is built around the concept of “transactional” and its elements perform transactional functions defined by the exchange paradigm. What gives e-Marketing its uniqueness is a series of specific functions, relational functions, that can be synthesized in the 2P 2C 3S formula: Personalization, Privacy, Customer Service, Community, Site, Security, Sales Promotion.


These 7 functions of the e-Marketing stay at the base of any e-Marketing strategy and they have a moderating character, unlike the classic Marketing mix that comprises situational functions only. Moderating functions of e-Marketing have the quality of moderate, operate upon all situational functions of the mix (the classic 4 P’s) and upon each other.


  1. Personalization

The fundamental concept of personalization as a part




6 Discuss the selling methods and sales promotion of E-marketing


Answer : Online sales promotions are meant to turn site visitors into consumers. The objective is to get the visitor to take action by contacting a sales representative and ultimately buying the offered product. The methods to accomplish this goal are diverse and include:


  • Advertising
  • Loyalty and rewards programs
  • Contests
  • Search engine usage and optimization
  • Social media
  • Email blasts
  • Referral marketing
  • Affiliate marketing
  • Inbound marketing
  • Videos
  • Coupons, premiums, rebates, and other discounts



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MK0016- Advertising Management and Sales Promotion

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SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0016- Advertising Management and Sales Promotion
BK ID B1809


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



1 Discuss the DAGMAR approach in setting objectives and measuring effectiveness of advertising.


Answer : Meaning of DAGMAR approach

Advertising is a part of marketing sometimes avoided by small business as it can be perceived as costly, ineffective and only appropriate for large corporations. However an understanding of advertising models such as AIDA and DAGMAR can help any small business plan more effective advertising.

AIDA stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action and can be used in small business marketing to improve campaigns, including those based on email autoresponders.




2 What is Gestalt psychology? Explain with examples how it resembles the way a person fits in the advertising message with his/her existing knowledge.


Answer : Gestalt Psychology is by Dr. C. George Boerne


Gestalt Psychology, founded by Max Wertheimer, was to some extent a rebellion against the molecularism of Wundt’s program for psychology, in sympathy with many others at the time, including William James.  In fact, the word Gestalt means a unified or meaningful whole, which was to be the focus of psychological study instead.


The Theory


Gestalt psychology is based on the observation that we often experience things that are not a part of our simple sensations.  The original observation was Wertheimer, when he noted that we perceive motion where there is nothing more than a rapid sequence of individual sensory events.  This is what he saw in the toy




3 Advertising is a paid form of communication. It has gained its significance since it attempts to build a positive attitude towards a product. Explain the characteristics and objectives of advertising.

Answer : Three Main Advertising Objectives


Increasing Sales and Profits

One of the major objectives of advertising is to increase sales and profits. Some companies, like Internet businesses, only use advertising to apprise people about their products and services. These companies don’t have sales departments. Hence, they can only sell products and earn profits if they are actively advertising. Some forms of advertising lend themselves more to producing immediate profits. For example, direct response advertising, which asks consumers for money in the ads, is specifically geared toward building sales and profits.





4 What is “above the line” and “below the line” activities with respect to marketing communications? Explain the concept in detail.

Answer : Above-the-line

There are a number of approaches to promotion that are open to organisations. Above-the-line promotions use mass media methods. This type of promotion focuses on advertising to a large audience. It includes print, online media, television and cinema advertising.


As the fourth largest car company in the world, Kia is a big brand. It offers a range of products targeted at different market segments.kia-piccanto Above-the-line activities include adverts in the press. They also produce online banner advertisements, place advertisements on billboards and use their website to meet the needs of their consumers. Recent TV advertising campaigns have included the ‘small yet mighty’ cat for the new Picanto and the ‘future proof’ Kia cee’d, emphasising




5 Describe the AIDA model of consumer response hierarchy with the help of diagram.


Answer : The Hierarchy of Effects Model was created in 1961 by Robert J Lavidge and Gary A Steiner. This marketing communication model, suggests that there are six steps from viewing a product advertisement (advert) to product purchase. The job of the advertiser is to encourage the customer to go through the six steps and purchase the product.


Hierarchy Of Effects Model




The six steps are as follows:



The customer becomes aware of the product through advertising. This is a challenging step, there is no guarantee that the customer will be aware of the product brand after they view the advert. Customers see many adverts




6 Describe some of the strategies for effective marketing and advertising in rural market.


Answer : In order to utilize the immense potential in rural markets companies need to develop specific marketing mix and action plans, taking into consideration the complex set of factors that influence consumer behaviour. Innovative companies which adopted an integrated approach have succeeded in utilizing marketing opportunities that rural areas offer.


Different rural marketing strategies in India

  1. Competitive strategy
    • Supplier: The company not only has to make high quality products but also has to sell them cheap. This can be achieved


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MK0015-Services Marketing and Customer Relationship Management

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SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0015-Services Marketing and Customer Relationship


BK ID B1808




Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.




1 “Positioning a service in the marketplace is much like positioning a product”. Explain Service positioning and its purpose with the help of an example.


Answer : Positioning of services :

The development of a sustainable positioning strategy for a product, service, division or company.  Each engagement utilizes the Four Forces of Positioning methodology. These projects include fresh articulation of market vision, competition analysis, market segmentation, positioning statement development, and identification of business model implications of positioning strategy.


Explanation :

Positioning strategy of services in based on following steps :

  1. Determining the levels of positioning: Step one is to settle on which level needs positioning attention and focus. For e.g. Vodafone has separate



2 Elaborate GAP analysis in detail.


Answer : In information technology, gap analysis is an assessment tool to help identify differences between information systems or applications. A gap is sometimes called “the space between where we are and where we want to be.”


A gap analysis helps bridge that space by highlighting which requirements are being met and which are not. The tool provides a foundation for measuring the investment of time, money and human resources that’s required to achieve a particular outcome.


In software development, for instance, a gap analysis can be used to document which services and/or functions have been accidentally left out, which ones have been deliberately eliminated and which still need to be developed. In compliance, a gap analysis can be used to compare what is required by law to what is currently being done.





3 “Interaction plays a lead role in building customer relationships”. Explain CIM in this context.


Answer : Computer-integrated manufacturing

A system in which individual engineering, production, and marketing and support functions of a manufacturing enterprise are organized into a computer-integrated system. Functional areas such as design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution are linked through the computer with factory floor functions such as materials handling and management, providing direct control and monitoring of all process operations.


Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) may be viewed as the successor technology which links computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), robotics, numerically controlled machine tools (NCMT), automatic storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS), flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), and other computer-based manufacturing technology. Computer-integrated manufacturing is also known as integrated computer-aided manufacturing (ICAM). Autofacturing includes computer-integrated




4 What are the various types of conflicts in marketing services?


Answer : In the workplace, conflict is inevitable, usually occurring when one party perceives that their interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party. Conflict can produce either a positive or negative outcome. By being able to identify potential conflict before it arises and knowing how to effectively manage it, you will be able to help your staff increase the chances of turning conflict into a positive outcome. There are two types of conflict, functional and dysfunctional.

Functional conflicts

Functional conflicts are constructive, support your company’s goals, and improve performance. It generally involves people who are genuinely interested in solving a problem and are willing to listen to one another.



5 Elaborate the important steps that service providers should bear in mind while implementing one to one marketing.

Answer : Some of the important steps for implementing one-to-one marketing are as follows:


One-to-one marketing involves gearing the organization to deal with valuable customers on an individual basis. This is not unattainable, but the effort should be worth the benefits that accrue.


One-to-one or relationship marketing means being able and willing to change one’s behaviour towards individual customer based on what the customer tells the company and what else the company knows about that customer. The mechanics of one-to-one marketing are complex. It is one thing to train the sales staff to be warm and attentive, and quite another to identify, track and interact with an individual customer and then reconfigure product or service to meet that customer’s needs.


There are four important steps for implementing one-to-one marketing.


  1. Identifying the customers:



6 Write short notes on:


  1. a) E-CRM

Answer : Electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM) involves the integration of Web channels into the overall enterprise CRM strategy with the goal of driving consistency within all channels relative to sales, customer service and support (CSS) and marketing initiatives. It can support a seamless customer experience and maximize customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and revenue.


eCRM strategy components


When enterprises integrate their customer information, there are three eCRM strategy components:

  • Operational: Because of sharing information, the processes in business should make customer’s need as first and seamlessly implement. This avoids multiple times to bother customers and redundant process.
  • Analytical: Analysis helps company maintain a long-term relationship with customers.
  • Collaborative: Due to improved communication technology, different departments in company implement (intraorganizational) or work with business partners (interorganizational) more efficiently by sharing information.


ECRM is being adopted by companies because it increases customer loyalty and customer retention by improving customer satisfaction, one of the objectives of eCRM. E-loyalty results in long-term profits for online retailers because they incur less




  1. b) Customer Retention

Answer : Customer retention is on the minds of small and medium businesses across the world. With rising customer acquisition costs, businesses need to get innovative and start taking a proactive role in retaining their clients.


The consequences of customer retention also compound over time, and in sometimes unexpected ways. Even a tiny change in customer retention can cascade through a business system and multiply over time. The resulting effect on long-term profit and growth shouldn’t be underestimated.



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Elective: Logistics & Supply Chain Management (Part – 2)

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National Institute of Business Management

Chennai – 020


Elective: Logistics & Supply Chain Management (Part – 2)



Attend any 4 questions.  Each question carries 25 marks

(Each answer should be of minimum 2 pages / of 300 words)


  1. 1. Explain the characteristics features of inland waterways and maritime transport.

Answer: Inland waterways: Inland waterways are made up of navigable rivers, lakes, coastal creeks, lagoons and canals (Aderemo and Mogaji, 2010). The movement of goods and services along inland waterways is one of the oldest means of transporting goods and services from point to point (Fellinda, 2006) This is largely due to the fact that inland water transport (IWT) offers the most economical, energy efficient and environmental friendly means of transporting all types of cargo from place to place (Ojile, 2006). It also offers safer and cheaper rates in areas where water exist naturally. This facilitates commerce, promotes wealth creation, poverty alleviation, and creates job opportunities for youths within such regions. The ancillary sector of boat building industry also generates employment through active engagement of the youths in welding and fabrication process (Gray, 2004).



  1. 2. Explain the duties and responsibilities of stores personnel.

Answer: Interestingly, Stores is a function that is visible in probably any physical house. Be it a hotel, a hospital, a shop or industrial set up Stores is found every where.  Its presence every where adequately underlines the responsibility of Stores. Depending upon where it is located Stores has to burden from minor to major responsibilities.

The most common yet major responsibilities that are carried by any Stores are:

  • Receipt of incoming goods
  • Inspection of all receipts
  • Storage and preservation
  • Identification of all materials stored


  1. 3. Explain the role of Computer in Materials Management Planning.

Answer: Material requirements planning (MRP) is a production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems are software-based, while it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well.An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet three objectives:

  • Ensure materials are available for production and products are available for delivery to customers.
  • Maintain the lowest possible material and product levels in store
  • Plan manufacturing activities, delivery



  1. 4. What is the need for measurement of supply chain efficiency? How is it measured?Explain.


  1. 5. What is integrated logistics?Explain.

Answer: Integrated Logistics is the small package industry’s leading provider of Financial Management Tools for the Logistics and Supply Chain Professional. It is a System-wide management of entire logistics chain as a single entity, instead of separate management of individual logistical functions.

The logistics in the supply chain must anticipate the customers’ needs – this is integrated logistics. Definition: Is defined as “ the process of anticipating customer needs and wants; acquiring the capital, materials, people, technologies and



  1. 6. Write an essay on the Supply Chain Management for Global Competitiveness.

25 x 4=100 marks


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