PRINCIPLE & PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT

AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                        Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

                                                         

 

                                                         

 

 

SUBJECT: PRINCIPLE & PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT

 

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                                                                                                                                            Marks: 80

CASE STUDY : 1

 

International Case :   Carrefour — Which Way to Go?

 

Wal-Mart’s biggest global competitor is the big French retailer Carretour, a firm that has hypermarkets, big stores offering a variety of goods. It has made large investments around the globe in Latin America and China. But not all is well as competitors taking market share its home market, for instance. There has been even speculation of a takeover by Wal-Mart or Tesco, an English chain. Mr. Barnard has been ousted after heading the company for 12 years; he was replaced by Jose Luis Durant who is of German-Spanish descent. Although the global expansion is cited by some as success, it may be even a big mistake. It withdrew from Japan and sold 29 hypermarkets in Mexico. Carrefour also had problems competing with Tesco in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. In Germany, the company faced tough competition from Aldi and Lidle, two successful discounters. On the other hand, it bought stores in Poland, Italy, Turkey, and opened new stores in China, South Korea, and Columbia. Carrefour has become more careful in selecting markets. But. the company is eager to enter the Indian market, but found out in late 2006 that Wal-Mart will do so as well.

 

In France, where Carrefour is well established, the company made the big mistake in its pricing policy. It probably started with the 1999 merger with Promodes, the French discount chain. Carrefour confused the French clientele by losing its low-cost image; whether the image can be changed remains to be seen. Mr. Durant, the new CEO since 2005, embarked            on the new strategy by offering 15 percent new products in its hypermarkets and 10 percent in its supermarkets. Moreover, he wants to employ more staff, extend the operating hours in certain hypermarkets, cutting prices, trying small stores, and pushing down decision making. Mr. Durant aims to stay only in countries where Carrefour is among the top retailers.

 

 

Questions:

  1. How should Mr. Durant assess the opportunities in various countries around the world?
  2. Should Carrefour adopt Wal-Mart’s strategy of “low prices everyday”? What would be the advantage or disadvantage of such a strategy?
  3. How could Carrefour differentiate itself from Wal-Mart?
  4. Identify cultures in selected countries that need to be considered in order to be successful?

 

 

Introduction of the Case:

 

 

Abstract: 
Carrefour was the second largest retailer of consumer goods and groceries worldwide, after Wal-mart. The company pioneered the concept of hypermarket in their home country, France, as early as 1960’s.However, towards late 1990’s; Carrefour saw a decline in their French hypermarkets owing to certain unfavorable government regulations and competition from hard discount stores. Carrefour introduced a series of

 

 

 

  1. How should Mr. Durant assess the opportunities in various countries around the world?

 

Answer : Mr. Durant, the new CEO since 2005, embarked   on the new strategy by offering 15 percent new products in its

 

 

  1. Should Carrefour adopt Wal-Mart’s strategy of “low prices everyday”? What would be the advantage or disadvantage of such a strategy?

 

Answer : Yes Certainly they have to adopt the strategy of low pricing every day, In France, where Carrefour is well established, the company

 

 

  1. How could Carrefour differentiate itself from Wal-Mart?

 

Answer : Wal-Mart is more than just the world’s largest retailer. It is an economic force, a cultural phenomenon and a lightning rod for controversy. It

 

 

  1. Identify cultures in selected countries that need to be considered in order to be successful?

 

Answer : Carrefour operates in 29 countries around the world. World population is rising, geographic distribution of populations is shifting, world population isaging rapidly, ethnic mixes in developed countries are changing

 

 

CASE STUDY : 2

 

International Case :  Reengineering the Business Process at Procter & Gamble

 

Procter & Gamble (P&G), a multinational corporation known for products such as diapers, shampoo, soap, and toothpaste, was committed to improving value to the customer. Its products were sold through various channels, such as grocery retailers, wholesalers, mass merchandisers, and club stores. The flow of goods in the retail grocery channel was from the factory’s warehouse to the distributors’ warehouses before going to the grocery stores where customers selected the merchandise from the shelves.

 

The improvement-driven company was not satisfied with its performance and developed a variety of programs to improve its service and the efficiency of its operation. One such program was electronic data interchange, which provided daily information from the retail stores to P&G. The installation of the system resulted in better service, reduced inventory levels, and labor-cost savings. Another approach, the continuous replenishment program, provided additional benefits for P&G as well as for its retailer customers. Eventually, the entire ordering system was redesigned, with the result of dramatic performance improvements. The reengineering efforts also required restructuring of the organization. P&G had been known for its brand management for more than 50 years. But in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the brand management approach pioneered by the company in the 1930s required rethinking and restructuring. In a drive to improve efficiency and coordination, several brands were combined with authority and responsibility given to category managers. Such a manager would determine overall pricing and product policies. Moreover, the category managers had the authority to withdraw weak brands, thus avoiding conflict between similar brands. They were also held responsible for the profit of the product category they were managing. The switch to category management required not only new skills but also a new attitude.

 

Questions:

1)  The reengineering efforts of P&G focused on the business process system. Do you think other processes, such as the human system, or other managerial policies need to be considered in a process redesign?

2)  What do you think was the reaction of the brand managers, who may have worked under the old system for many years, when the category management structure was installed?

3) As a consultant, would you have recommended a top-down or a bottom-up approach, or both, to process redesign and organizational change?

4)  What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

 

 

 

Introduction of the Case:

 

 

Abstract: 
Business process re-engineering (BPR) began as a private sector technique to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service, cut operational, and become world-class competitors. A key stimulus for re-engineering has been the

 

 

 

1)  The reengineering efforts of P&G focused on the business process system. Do you think other processes, such as the human system, or other managerial policies need to be considered in a process redesign?

 

Answer : The reengineering efforts also required restructuring of the organization. P&G had been known for its brand management for more than 50 years. But in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the brand management approach pioneered by the company in the 1930s required rethinking and restructuring. In a drive to improve efficiency and

 

2)  What do you think was the reaction of the brand managers, who may have worked under the old system for many years, when the category management structure was installed?

 

Answer :The category managers had the authority to withdraw weak brands, thus avoiding conflict between similar brands. They were also

 

 

3) As a consultant, would you have recommended a top-down or a bottom-up approach, or both, to process redesign and organizational change?

 

Answer : A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing

 

 

4)  What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach?

Answer :

 

Bottom-up approach Top-down approach
Summary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASE STUDY : 3

 

International Case :  The Restructuring of Daimler-Benz

 

In a 1996 address to stockholders and friends of Daimler-Benz, CEO Jurgen Schrempp reviewed the position of the diversified company. He started by saying “1995 was a dramatic year in the history of Daimler-Benz.” It was also a year that the board of management made a major break with the past.

 

Daimler-Benz, with more than 300,000 employees worldwide, consisted of four major groups: The first, by far the biggest and most successful group, was Mercedes-Benz with about 200,000 employees. It is best known for its passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The second was the AEG Daimler-Benz industries in the business of rail systems, microelectronics, heavy diesel engines, energy systems technology, and automation. The third was the Aerospace Group in the business of aircraft (the company has a more than one-third interest in the Airbus consortium), space systems, defense and civil systems, and propulsion systems. Finally, there was the Inter Services Group consisting of systemshaus, financial services, insurance brokerage, trading, marketing services, mobile communications services, and real

estate management.

 

Daimler-Benz went through various development phases. From 1985 to 1990, it diversified into aerospace and electrical engineering. The aim was to become an integrated high-tech group. This diversification was further consolidated in the next phase that extended from 1990 to 1995. Under the leadership of Schrempp, the core business was redefined and the strategy refocused.

 

A 1995-96 portfolio review showed the need for refocusing on what the company could do best. Top management reevaluated its strategies and its core businesses based on economic criteria and the strategic fit of the various activities. It became clear that the company’s strengths were in car manufacturing, the truck business, and the railroad sector. Mercedes Benz, for example, had a strong competitive position with its cars and trucks in Europe, North America, and Latin America. Vans were also relatively strong in Europe, and buses had a good competitive position in Latin America. Based on this analysis, the strategies for potential growth were through globalization and the development of new product segments.

 

In 1996, top management reassessed the company’s position and its 1995 unsatisfactory results from its operations. It was discovered that the company was exposed to currency fluctuations that affected profitability. The company’s image was also blurred because of the ventures into many different kinds of industries. The management board decided to cut its losses and chart a new direction for the company, with greater emphasis on profitability. The organization structure was tightened and certain businesses were divested. In fact, policy decision from an earlier period were reversed.  The unprofitable AEG Group and the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker did not receive financial support. Since both the Dutch government and Daimler-Benz withdrew support, Fokker filed for bankruptcy. Although these and other drastic decisions helped reduce the 1995 financial losses, the company’s goal was not to emphasize maximizing short-term profitability but to work toward medium- and long-term profitability.

 

A number of other managerial decisions were made to achieve the ambitious goals of reducing costs and improving profitability. Employees close to the operations were empowered to make decisions necessary to carry out their tasks. The organization structure was simplified and decentralized so that organizational units could respond faster to environmental changes. Moreover, the new organization structure was designed to promote an entrepreneurial spirit. Control was exercised through a goal-driven, performance-based reward system. At the same time, the new structure was designed to promote cooperation. In 1997, the board of management restructured and integrated the Mercedes-Benz Group into            Daimler-Benz. Consequently, Mercedes-Benz’s chief, Helmut Werner, who had been given credit for a successful model policy, resigned from the company.

 

 

 

Questions:

 

 

1)  What is your assessment of Daimler-Benz’s operations in many different fields?

 

Answer : Daimler-Benz was a German manufacturer of automobiles, motorvehicles, and internal combustion engines; founded in 1926. Although Daimler-Benz is best known for its Mercedes-Benz automobile brand, during World War Idiot also created a notable series of aircraft, tank, and submarine engines. Daimler also produced parts for German arms, most notably barrels for the Mauserrifle. Daimler-Benz, as a business unit, had four major wings in diversified business, namely, Mercedes-Benz, AEG Daimler Benz Industries manufacturing rail systems, microelectronics, heavy diesel engines, another automations,

 

 

2) Should the various groups operate autonomously? What kinds of activities should be centralized?

Answer : Daimler-Benz realized its mistakes, and they merged certain businesses. The management even went ahead and introduced dies-investment policies. It seemed to them that one unit of higher management could not keep control over its mixture of various business units in different parts of the world. They introduced de-centralization, where every unit will work on their own, will behave as Daimler-Benz and not its branch.

3) Daimler-Benz is best known for its Mercedes-Benz cars. Why do you think Daimler bought AEG in the first place and why did it venture into the Aerospace and Inter Services businesses?

 

Answer : AEG was a German producer of electrical equipment founded in1883 by Emil Ruthenium. In 1985 AEG was bought by Daimler-Benz, later being wholly integrated intoDaimler Chrysler forming part of Adtranz. The company policies, in its earlier days, lead it to diverse investments, starting from cars, railroads, automation, heavy diesel engines, propulsion systems and others.

 

 

 

4)  Given the apparent mistakes in acquiring non-automotive businesses, what should Jurgen Schrempp do now?

Answer : Jurgen Erich Schrempp, was until December 31, 2005, thereof DaimlerChrysler. During his tenure,Daimler-Benzmade the acquisition of theChrysler Corporationto become DaimlerChrysler. In addition to theacquisition of Chrysler, Schrempp pursued the acquisition of Mitsubishi Motorsas part of his ‘Three Pillars’ strategy to expand the reach of Daimler-Benz into the major markets of the USA and Asia. The various decisions that Mr. Schrempp will have to take now after facing collage of failures in the non-automotive business are:

 

CASE STUDY : 4

 

International Case :  Global Car Industry

 

How the Lexus Was Born-and Continued Its Success in the United States, but will Lexus Succeed in Japan?

 

One of the best examples of global competition is in the car industry. As the Japanese gained market share in America, U.S. car makers required the Japanese to self-impose quotas on cars exported to the United States. This encouraged Japanese firms not only to establish their plants in the United States but also to build bigger and more luxurious cars to compete against the higher-priced U.S. cars- and the expensive European cars such as the Mercedes and the BMW.

 

One such Japanese car is the Lexus, by Toyota. This car is aimed at customers who would like to buy a Mercedes or BMW but cannot afford either. With a sticker price of $35,000, the Lexus is substantially less expensive than comparable European imports. In 1983, Toyota set out to develop the best car in the world-measured against the Mercedes and the BMW. The aim was to produce a quiet, comfortable, and safe car that could travel at 150 miles per hour and still avoid the gas guzzler tax imposed on cars getting less than        22.5 miles per gallon. This seemed to be an idea of conflicting goals: cars being fast seemed irreconcilable with cars being at the same time fuel-efficient. To meet these conflicting goals, each subsystem of the car had to be carefully scrutinized, improved whenever possible, and integrated with the total design. The first version of the 32-valve V-8 engine did not meet the fuel economy requirement. The engineers applied a problem-solving technique called “thoroughgoing countermeasures at the source.” This means an attempt to improve every component until the design objectives are achieved. Not only the engine but also the transmission and other parts underwent close scrutiny to make the car meet U.S. fuel requirements.

 

Toyota’s approach to achieving quality is different from that of German car manufacturers. The latter use relatively labor-intensive production processes. In contrast, Toyota’s advanced manufacturing technology aims at high quality through automation requiring only a fraction of the work force used by German car makers. Indeed, this strategy, if successful, may be the secret weapon to gain market share in the luxury car market.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions:

1)  Prepare a profile of the potential buyer of the Lexus.

Answer :  Target Customer Description

The target customer with Lexus flagship hybrid design is seeking to present a bold image to others. Price is therefore a secondary factor to the message their car portrays in their purchasing decisions. Potential customers are born within ten years of the “baby boomer” generation aged forty-five and up. As a wealthy and image-

 

2)  What should Mercedes and BMW do to counteract the Japanese threat in the United States and Europe?

Answer :   [BOTH   MERC / BMW

 

3)  Why has the Lexus model been very successful in the U.S.  but has not been marketed in Japan?  (Suggestion:  Review the frequency of repair records of luxury cars.  Also talk to Lexus dealers or Lexus owners).

Answer :   [ IN  THE  US  CAR MARKET , THERE  WAS A  GAP  BETWEEN   MERC/BMW   AND   THE   LOCAL  BRANDS.

4)  Do you think Lexus will succeed in Japan?  Why or why not?

Answer :  LEXUS  CAN  SUCCEED  IN  JAPAN,

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MARKETING MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT : MARKETING MANAGEMENT

 

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COURSE :  MBA 4th Semester                                     Total Marks : 80

 

  1. 1. Describe what is meant by a business being ‘consumer led’.

Answer:-consumer-led is responding to the needs of consumers in the market. Example: NIVEA is a consumer-led business which made it one of the largest skin care brands in the world. In a broad sense it’s a guiding philosophy, whereby a ‘known customer’ is placed at the heart of every decision a company takes. The principle of a known customer is crucial, as Chris Lindsay, general manager Broadband, VoIP and Software Services Propositions, BT Business, explains: ‘By this we mean a type of customer you regard as valued. The key

 

  1. 2 What are the key parts of the marketing mix? Explain how each works with the others.

Answer:-Marketing Mix:-

Description The Marketing Mix model (also known as the 4 P’s) can be used by marketers as a tool to assist in implementing the marketing strategy. Marketing managers use this method to attempt to generate the optimal response in the target market by blending 4 (or 5, or 7) variables in an optimal way. It is important to understand that the Marketing Mix principles are controllable variables. The Marketing Mix can be adjusted on a frequent basis to meet the changing needs of the target group and the other dynamics of the marketing environment.

 

  1. Explain why the balance of the marketing mix is as important as any single element. marketing objective and marketing mix vary across the PRODUCT TYPE and  Product Life Cycle

Answer : PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE:- Products pass through a series of stages. Successful products progress through four basic stages: (1) Introduction; (2) Growth; (3) Maturity; and (4) Decline.

The product life cycle concept provides important insights about developments at the various stages of the product’s life. Knowledge that profits assume a predictable pattern through the stages and that promotional emphasis should shift from product

 

  1. Analyse the marketing mix for NIVEA VISAGE Young. What are its strongest points? Explain why you think this is so

Answer : Product

The first stage in building an effective mix is to understand the market. NIVEA uses market research to target key market segments which identifies groups of people with the same characteristics such as age/gender/attitude/lifestyle. The knowledge and understanding from the research helps in the development of new products. NIVEA carries out its market research with consumers in a number of different ways. These include:

 

 

Case Study -2

SWOT Analysis in action at SKODA

  1. What was the key weakness that Skoda was able to identify?

Answer :  The SWOT analysis was used by Skoda to identify its weaknesses. One of the greatest weakness identified, which affect the success of the company is its small market share. Skoda only holds 1.7 percent market share. Because of this, Skoda remains a small player in the car manufacturing market. Through the SWOT analysis, management was able to identify this weakness and also the causes of this weakness. Skoda’s small market share, is

 


  1. What strength did Skoda use to turn its brand weakness into an opportunity?

Answer : The strengths of Skoda were identified and assessed by conducting a SWOT analysis. The company conducted a research involving consumers in order to find out the strengths of its products and brand. Surveys were also used. The strength of the company and its products lie in its focus on experience rather than on sales. Meaning, the company makes sure that there is “human touch” in the production and manufacture of its cars and make sure that the consumers feel it. Because of this strength, Skoda was listed as one of

 

 

  1. How has Skoda strategically addressed external threats?

Answer : Through the SWOT analysis, the company was able to identify the external threats that may affect the company’s standing in the market and success. One of the biggest threats to Skoda is intense competition in the European car

 

 

  1. What in your view are the important benefits of using aSWOT analysis?

Answer : It is clear from the case study, the SWOT analysis have been helpful in creating and formulating strategies for the company. The company relied on SWOT analysis in getting a clear picture of where the company is now and where

 

 

Case-3 : Marketing strategy for growth

Answer the following questions

  1. What is the difference between primary and secondary research? Identify one example of primary and research carried out by Wilkinson.

Answer : Market research is vital for collecting data on which to base the strategy. Market research takes one of two main forms primary research and secondary

 

  1. Explain why Wilkinson needed a marketing strategy to help them to grow.

Answer : To grow, a business needs to give consumers what they want, at a price they are satisfied with, when they want it and make a profit for the company. Wilkinson commissioned market research which identified key potential for growth in the student sector. It had to develop a strategy for growth that not only covered the specific requirements of this target group, but also linked closely with the company’s overall aims and objectives.

 

  1. Evaluate the benefits of the marketing campaign to Wilkinson.

Answer : The campaign showed that:

  • awareness of Wilkinson brand had significantly risen from 77% to 95% of those interviewed. This brought it in line with Morrison supermarkets, a key competitor.
  • 17% of students who received a goody bag at freshers” fairs used the 15% discount voucher. A further 58% intended to use the voucher. The campaign had either got students to enter the Wilkinson stores or increase their intention to visit the store.

 

  1. Analyse how effective the marketing campaign was in helping

Answer : The campaign showed significant increase in students’ levels of awareness about Wilkinson and its products.

 

 

Case-4 : Extending the product life cycle

 

Answer the following questions:

  1. Using current products familiar to you, draw and label a product life cycle diagram, showing which stage each product is at.

Answer : A          B          C

PRODUCT   A—SRIL  SEDAN HATCHBACK—CHEVROLET

THIS  VEHICLE  IS  AT  THE  INTRODUCTORY  STAGE.

 

  1. Suggest appropriate aims and objectives for a small, medium and large business.

Answer : Aims and objectives for a small business.

Aim for a small business can “

 

OBJECTIVE  –IS  TO  MAKE  15%  RETURN  ON  INVESTMENT,

Aims and objectives for a  medium  business.

Aim for a medium sized business would be to maximize their profits and growth to expand their current business operations and increase market share.

 

  1. Consider the decision taken by Kellogg to opt for product development. Suggest a way in which itcould have diversified instead. Justify your answer.

Answer : THE  STRENGTH  OF

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MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM

 

 

 

AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT : MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM

 

 

COURSE :  MBA 3rd semester                                   Total Marks : 80

 

 

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CASE STUDY -1

  1. 1 Explain the process of cycle times given by David Axson.

Answer:-

  • Expect the Unexpected.“David Axson
  • Forecasting a critical business process in turbulent times.
  • What is a forecast? Forward Looking Fact-based Flexible Focused on Risks & Opportunities
  • „The end result … is not an accurate picture of tomorrow, but better decisions about the future.“Peter

Case study -2

 

Q1) Explain the stages in specific terms of ZBB Methodology. (20 Marks)

Answer:-Zero-Based Budgeting Method:-A comprehensive, in-depth process that effectively deconstructs the cost base, dissects and analyzes the fundamental elements that drive each expense category, and re-builds the cost structure from the ground up. The resulting savings opportunities are then embedded directly into the budget, with accountability clearly assigned and a solid tracking method outlined.

 

Case study -3

Q1) Explain the needs of Capital Expenditure investment. (10 Marks).

Answer:-‘Capital Expenditure – CAPEX':-Funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. This type of outlay is made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building a brand new factory

 

Q2) Give any two difference between hardware and software. (10 Marks).

Answer:-Hardware:- All physical contents of computer are hardware. This form is given to all electrical and mechanical devices attached to the computer for the purpose of input, process, and storage and output operations.

 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

 

 

 

AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT : INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

 

 

COURSE :  MBA 2nd semester                                   Total Marks : 80

 

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CASE – 1

(a) What was the critical catalyst that led Kodak to start taking the Japanese market seriously?

Kodak: The Changing Strategies By 2000, Kodak, the company that pioneered the imaging industry by inventing easy-to-use cameras and photographic film, was in deep crisis. With the advent of digital cameras in the mid 1990s, Kodak found its sales declining as consumers preferred the new cameras, which did not use films. The

 

(b) From the evidence given in the case do you think Kodak’s charges of unfair trading practices against Fuji are valid? Support your answer.   

On December 5, 1997 the US lost its first major trade dispute in the newly formed World Trade Organization(WTO). The high-profile case pitted photographic paper and film giants Kodak and Fuji against one another along with their

 

CASE 2

1 Which company is truly Multinational ? Why?                                       

Answer:-

A Truly Multinational Company:-The Axel Johnson Institute, the predecessor to Nordic Water, was founded as early as in the beginning of the sixties in Nynäshamn. It was an exceptional institute, as it was privately owned. From the beginning the business concept was clean water. Here they should develop, design, manufacture and deliver machines and equipment for water and wastewater treatment.

It appears to have been an excellent business idea. At

 

 2:  List three differences between Company, Multi National company and Trans Multi National Company?

Answer:-Difference between a global, transnational, international and multinational company18062007

We tend to read the following terms and think they refer to any company doing business in another country.

  • Multinational

CASE – 3

(a)Explain why MNCs have located R & D centres in developing countries? 

Answer:-Theories of the globalisation of innovation assume that multinational corporations (MNCs) distribute their innovation activities hierarchically, with advanced technology being confined to the advanced industrialised countries, while more routine low-end innovation is decentralised in a few developing countries. The emergence of about 40 research and development (R&D) centres in Beijing, China, many of which engage in basic and advanced applied research, challenges the above assumption. This article argues that the cheap and

 

(b)Mention the areas where R & D activities can easily be decentralised.

  1. Decentralized R&D in the contemporary MNE

Answer:-  The  authors  distinguish  two  different  environments  in which R&D  labs  are performing.   The  first  context  is  characterized  by  the  fact  that  R&D  activities  work  along with other functions within the subsidiary in order to develop a particular  product which would be brought on to the market by the subsidiary. In order to  better  address  local needs,  the R&D  laboratory uses  company-level  knowledge  and develops its own

CASE -4

VK Ltd a multi-product Company, furnishes you the following data relating to the year 2000.

First Half of the year      Second Half of the year

Sales                     Rs. 45,000                            Rs. 50,000

Total Cost            Rs. 40,000                            Rs. 43,000

Assuming that there is no change in prices and variable costs and that the fixed expenses are incurred equally in the two half years periods calculate for the year 2000.

  1. The Profit Volume ration
  2. Fixed Expenses
  3. Break-Even Sales
  4. Percentage of margin of safety.

5 marks each

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT : HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

COURSE :  MBA 4th semester                                   Total Marks : 80

 

 

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CASE STUDY : 1

 

A policy is a plan of action. It is a statement of intention committing the management to a general course of action. When the management drafts a policy statement to cover some features of its personnel programmes, the statement may often contain an expression of philosophy and principle as well. Although it is perfectly legitimate for an organization to include its philosophy, principles and policy in one policy expression.

 

Q1) Why organizations adopt personnel policies explain the benefits?

 

Answer : Recruitment and Selection

Policies pertaining to the recruitment and selection process are the foundation of building any workforce. You must have a plan for creating

 

Q2) What are the sources and content of personnel policies?

 

Answer :PERSONNEL POLICY

 

  • Personnel policies constitute guide to action. They furnish the general standards or basis on which decisions are reached.
  • A policy is man-made rule or predetermined course of action that is established to guide the performance of work towards the

 

Q3) Explain few personnel policies?

 

Answer : MAIN POLICY STATEMENTS

 

  1. Employment Policy———-to obtain suitable qualified and experienced personnel and to enable them to derive satisfaction from employment by offering them attractive wages, good working conditions, security and opportunities for promotions.
  2. Training policy——-to provide adequate training facilities to enable employees to learn to do their job effectively and to

 

 

 

Q4) Explain principles of personnel policies?

 

Answer : Principles of personnel policy

 

Management

Management for us means assuming responsibility for our stakeholders and delegating at the right level. We achieve both predefined and individual goals regardless of personal preferences and while maintaining equal opportunities,

 

CASE STUDY : 2

 

Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among whom the rights people can be selected. Theoretically, recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications, in practice the activity extends to the screening of applications so as to eliminate those who are not qualified for the job.

 

Recruitment refers to the process of receipt of applications from job seekers. In reality, the term is used to describe the entire process of employee hiring. These are recruitment boards for railways, banks and other organization.

 

 

Q1) Explain in detail the general purpose of recruitment?

 

Answer : Recruitment provides a desirable number of candidates for an organization’s open positions. Recruitment also manages the costs in time and money for hiring employees. Recruitment enables the organization to meet social and legal obligations. By sourcing, developing and recruiting candidates, recruitment facilitates the

 

Q2) Explain factors governing Recruitment?

 

Answer : Factors Governing Recruitment:

 

Given its key role and external visibility, recruitment isnaturally subject to influence of several factors. These include external andinternal forces.

 

External Forces:

Of particular importance is the supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market. If the demand for a particular skill ishigh relative to the

 

Q3) Explain the Recruitment process with diagram?

 

Answer :AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS

 

———————————————————————————–

PROCESS   ELEMENTS        FOR  ALL  POSITIONS

———————————————!————!———————-

STEP  1

 

PREPARING  JOB ANALYSES

PREPARING JOB  DESC

———————————————————————————-

 

 

Q4) Explain Recruitment planning?

 

Answer : Recruitment is the process used by an organization to locate and attract job applicants in order to fill a position. An effective approach to recruitment can help a company successfully compete for limited human resources. To maximize competitive advantage, a company must choose the recruiting method that produces the best pool of candidates quickly and cost effectively. There are five steps to the process.

 

 

CASE STUDY : 3

 

Navin AGM materials, is fuming and fretting. He bumped into Kiran, GM Materials, threw the resignation letter on his table, shouted and walked out of the room swiftly.

 

Navin has reason for his sudden outburst. He has been driven to the wall. Perhaps details of the story will tell the reasons for Navin’s bile and why he put in his papers, barely four months after he took up his assignment.

 

The year was 2005 when Navin quit the prestigious Sail plant at Mumbai. As a manager material Navin enjoyed the power. He could even place an order for materials worth Rs 25 lakh. He needed nobody’s prior approval.

 

Navin joined a pulp making plant located at Pune as AGM Materials. The plant is owned by a prestigious business house in India. Obviously perks, designation and reputation of the conglomerate lured Navin away from the public sector.

 

When he joined the pulp making company, little did Navin realize that he needed prior approval to place an order for materials worth Rs 12 lakhs. He had presumed that he had the authority to place an order by himself worth half the amount of what he used to do at the mega steel maker. He placed the order material arrived, were recived, accepted and used up in the plant.

 

Trouble started when the bill for Rs 12 lakh came from vendor. The accounts department withheld payment for the reason that the bill was not endorsed by Kiran. Kiran rused to sign the bill as his approval was not taken by Navin before placing the order.

 

Navin felt fumigated and cheated. A brief encounter with Kiran only aggrarated the problem. Navin was curtly told that he should have known company rules before venturing. Navin decided to quit the company.

 

 

Q1) Does the company have an orientation programme?

 

It does’nt  look like  the

 

 

Q2) If yes how effective is it?

 

It  is  not

 

Q3) How is formal Orientation programme conducted?

 

Answer : The orientation process has three stages:

 

1   A general orientation

2   A departmental orientation, and

3   A specific job

 

Q4) If you were Navin what would have you done?

 

Answer : DISCUSS THE  PROS/CONS  OF

 

 

CASE STUDY : 4

 

Bitter it may taste, shrill it may sound, and sleepless nights it may cause, but it is true. In a major shake up Airbus. The European aircraft manufacturers has thrown a big shock to its employees. Before coming to the details of the shock, a peep into the company’s resume.

 

Name Airbus

Created 1970

President CEO : Vijay M.

Employees 57000

Turnover 26 Bn (Euro)

Total Aircraft sold (Feb 2007) 7187

Delivered 4598

Headquarters Paris (France)

Facilities 16

Rival Boeing

 

Airbus announced on February 27, 2007 that it would shed 10,000 jobs across four European contries and sell six of its unit. N the same day the helpless workers did what was expected of them – downed tools and staged protests. The protesting workers at Airbus’s factory at Meaulte, northern France, were seen picketing outside the factory gate after holding up production a day earlier. To be fair to Airbus, its management entered talks with unions before the job loss and sale was formally announced. But the talks did not mollify the agitated workers.

 

Job sheating and hiring of units are a part of Power and restructuring plan unleashed by Airbus to save itself from increasing loss of its ground to the arch rival, Boeing Co.

 

Airbus Power & Strategy was first mooted in October 2006 but sparkled a split between France & Germany over the distribution of job losses and the placement of future ones. Later the two countries agreed to share both job losses and new technology.

 

The power and plan, if finalized, would mean a 3 per cent reduction to Airbus’s 55000 employee strength.

 

 

Q1) Why should Power and focus on shedding jobs to save on cost?

 

Answer : It is a  mean

————————————-

Q2) Are there no alternative strategies?

Answer : THRER  ARE

—————————————

Q3) Will the proposed shedding of jobs and scale of six units help airbus survive the intense competition from Boeing?

Answer : YES, THIS

———————————–

Q4) Comment on the whole issue?

 

Answer :  THES

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Financial Management

 

AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT : Financial Management

 

COURSE : MBA 2nd semester                                         Total Marks : 80

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Question – A (1)   Mr. Nimish holds the following portfolio.      

Share                                                            Beta                                                       Investment

Alpha                                                            0.9                                                          Rs.12, 00,000

Beta                                                               1.5                                                          Rs. 3, 50,000

Carrot                                                           1.0                                                          Rs. 1, 00,000

What is the expected rate of return on his portfolio, if the risk rate is 7 per cent and the expected return on the market portfolio is 16 per cent?

 

 

Answer – A (1):  For given bata (β), the required rate of return is obtained as

E(rp) = rf + β (rm – rf)

 

Question – A (2)  A share is selling for Rs.60 on which a dividend of Rs.4 per share is expected at the end of the year. The expected market price after dividend declaration is to be Rs.70. Compute the following: -

  • The return on investment ® in shares.
  • Dividend yield
  • Capital Gain Yield

 

 

Answer – A (2):

  • Return on Investment per share =   Net profit after taxes   –   Dividend     X  100

Average ordinary share or net worth

 

 

Dividend Yield   =    Dividend per ordinary share (DPS)    X  100

Market Value per Share

 

 

 

  • Capital Gain Yield =   Earnings per share (EPS)   X  100

Market value per share

 

 

Question – B: DIC Ltd. provides the following data:

Comparative trial balance

                                                                         March 31 year 2              March 31 year 1              Increase(Decrease)  

Debit Balance                                                                     

Cash                                                                                      20                                            10                                  10

Working capital (other than cash)                   Rs.190                                    Rs. 90                           Rs.100

Investment (Long term)                                               100                                         200                               (100)

Building and equipment                                              500                                         400                                100

Land                                                                                      40                                          50                                 (10)

 

Total                      850                                         750                                100  

 

Credit  

Accumulated Depreciation                                         200                                         160                         40

Bonds                                                                                   150                                         100                         50

Reserves                                                                             350                                         350                         —

Equity Shares                                                                    150                                         140                         10

 

                                                                Total                      850                                         750                         100

 

Income Statement

For the period ending March 31, year 2

                                                                                                                                                                (Amount in Rs lakh)

Sales                                                                                                                                                     Rs.1000

Cost of Goods Sold                                                                                                                                 500

Selling Expense                                                                                Rs.50                                    

Administrative Expenses                                                                   50                                            100

Operating Income                                                                                                                                  400                 

Other charges

                Gain on sale of building and equipment                 Rs 5

                Loss on sale of investments                                           (10)

                Interest                                                                                     (6)

                Taxes                                                                                      (189)                                          (200)

 

Net Income after taxes                                                                                                                         200

Notes:  (a)          The depreciation charged for the year was Rs.60 Lakh

  • The Book value of the building and equipment disposed was Rs 10 Lakh

 

Prepare a Cash Flow Statement (Based on AS-3)

 

Answer – B:

Cash Flow Statement of DIC Limited (Indirect Method)

Particulars Amount in Rs. Lakh
Cash flow from operating activities:
    Net profit before taxation and extraordinary items 389
    Adjustment for
        Depreciation 60
        Gain on sale of building and equipment (5)
        Interest expense 6

 

 

Question – C (1) – A. Ltd. produces a product which has a monthly demand of 4,000 units. The product requires a component X which is purchased at Rs.20. For every finished product one unit of component is required.  The ordering cost is Rs.120 per order and the holding cost is 10 per cent per annum.            You are required to calculate:

  • Economic order quantity
  • If the minimum lot size to be supplied is 4, 000 units, what is the extra cost, the company has to incur?
  • What is the minimum carrying cost, the company has to incur?

 

Answer – C (1):

  • Determination of EOQ

EOQ   =          2 AB                                             A = Annual usage of inventory (units)

C                                                      B = Buying cost per order

C = Carrying cost per unit

 

 

 

 

 

Question – D - A stock is currently trading for Rs.29. The risk less interest is 7 % p.a continuously compounded. Estimate the value of European call option with a strike price of Rs.30 and a time of expiration of 4 months. The standard deviation of the stock’s annual return is 0.45. Apply BS model.

 

 

Answer – D:

Spot price of the share S Rs. 29.00

 

 

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Corporate Law

 

 

AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT : Corporate Law

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COURSE :  GDM 2nd  Sem                                                                                                                                 Total Marks : 80

 

  1. 1 In the following statements only one is correct statement. Explain Briefly?

i)An invitation to negotiate is a good offer.

Answer : Incorrect : – Its not an offer only an indication of a willingness to consider any offers and counter offers.

ii)A quasi-contract is not a contract at all.

 Answer : Correct  : A quasi contract is a fictional contract created by courts for equila    not contractual purposes. A quasi – contract is not

 

  1. 2.A ship-owner agreed to carry to cargo of sugar belonging to A from Constanta to Busrah. He knew that there was a sugar market in Busrah and that A was a sugar merchant, but did not know that he intended to sell the cargo, immediately on its arrival.  Owning to Shipment’s default, the voyage was delayed and sugar fetched a  lower price than it would have done had it arrived on time.  A claimed compensation for the full loss suffered by him because of the delay.  Give your decision.  Explain  Briefly?

Answer  :   A can claim ordinary damages. Loss of profits is a special less and can be claimed  only if the other party was aware of the possibility of such a loss. In the absence of any explicit communication, we have to infer what could have  been in the

 

  1. 3.The proprietors of a medical preparation called the “Carbolic Smoke Ball” published in several newspapers the following advertisement:-“£ 1000 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza after having used the Smoke Ball three times daily for two weeks according to printed directions supplied with each ball. £ 1000 is deposited with the Alliance Bank showing our sincerity in the matter. On the faith in this advertisement, the plaintiff bought a Smoke Ball and used it as directed. She was attacked by influenza. She sued the company for the reward. Will she succeed?   Explain Briefly

Answer:  She wire not succeed. The facts show that there was no binding contract between  the parties. The case is not like, Williams v carwardine H.B Ad 621 where the money was to become payable on the performance of certain acts by the plaintiff, here

 

  1. 6. In each set of statements, only one is correct. State the correct statements & Explain briefly?

A) I)A bailed has a general lien on the goods bailed.

Answer : A bailed has a

ii)The ownership of goods pawned passes to the Pawnee.

Answer : The ownership of good pawns

iii)A gratuitous bailment can be terminated by the bailer even  before the stated time.

 Answer : A gratuitous bailment can be

B)I)A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a sub-agent.

Answer : A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a sub agent is  incorrect statement. The general rule is that an agent can’t delegable his authority and appoint another agent. An agent being delegates cannot transfer in

ii) An ostensible agency is as effective  as an express agency.

Answer : An ostensible agency is an effective as an ostensible authority exist where the principles words or conduct would lead a reasonable person in a 3rd party’s position to believe that the agent was authorized to act, even if the principles and the purported agent had never discussed such relationship for example, where one person appoints a

iii)A principal can always revoke an agent’s authority.

Answer : A principal can always revoke an agents authority is incorrect statement. However, principal cannot revoke agency coupled with

Q .8.  X needs Rs. 10,000 but cannot raise this amount because his credit is not good enough.  Y whose credit is good accommodates.  X by giving him a promote made out in favor of X, though Y owes no money to X.  X endorses   the promoter to Z for value received.  Z who is holder in due course the promoter to Z for value received.  Z who is holder in due course demands payment from Y.  Can refuse and plead the arrangement between him and X Explain briefly?

 Answer : According to sec 120 of the negotiable instrument act, e stoppers against  denying original validity of instrument, No maker of a

  1. 10. A promissory note was made without mentioning any time for payment.  The   holder added the words’ on demand on the face of the instrument.  State whether it amounted to material alteration and explain the effect of such   alteration.  Explain briefly?

Ans   :This is not note material alteration as a promissory note where no data of  payment is specified will be treated as payable on demand. Hence adding the word “ on demand “ does not alter the business effect of the instrument.

  1. 11. State whether the following instruments are valid promissory notes:

I)I promise to pay Rs. 5000 to B on the dearth of ‘B’s uncle provided that D in his will gives me a legacy sufficient for the promise of payment of the said sum. 

ii)I hereby acknowledge that I owe X Rs. 5,000 on account of rent due and I agree that the said sum will be paid be me in regular installments.  I acknowledge myself indebted to B in Rs. 5000 to be paid on demand for value received.

  Answer   :

  • It is not a promissory note because it does not contain an unconditional promise; the amount being payable only if uncle gives sufficient legacy.
  • Again it’s not a valid
  • 12.    A Payee holder of a bill of exchange.  He endorses it in blank and delivers it  to B.  B endorses in full to C or order.  C without endorsement transfers the   bill to D.  State giving reasons whether D as bearer of the bill of exchange is entitled to recover the payment from A or B or C.  Explain briefly?

Ans   : D is the bearer and the holder of the bill in case of dishonor of the bill, D is entitled to receive payment or recover the money by suit from the drawer, acceptor and A who have endorsed the bill in blank. But D canon sue B or C  as sec 55.

 

  1. 13. Write a short note on the Doctrine of Indoor Management? Explain briefly?               

Answer : Memorandum of association and articles of association are two most  important document needed for the incorporation of a company. The memorandum of a company is the constitution of that company. It sets out  the  (A) Object  (B)  Name Clause  (C)  Registered office clauses (D)  Liability Clauses  (E)  Capital Clauses whereas the

 

  1. 14. The shareholders at an annual general meeting passed a resolution for the payment of dividend at a rate higher than that recommended by the Board of Directors. Examine the validity of the resolution. Explain briefly?                      

Answer: Dividend :  According to regulation 85 of Table A of the companies Act 1956, a company in general meeting may declare dividend recommended by the board of the director of the company. The share holders at an annual general meeting may reduce the amount of dividend , recommended by the board of direction of the of the

 

  1. 18. A insured his house against fire.  Later while insure, A killed his wife, severely injured his only son, set fire to the house and died in the fire.  The son survived and sued the insurer for the fire loss, advice the insurer.   Explain briefly?                

Answer :Because the fire was set deliberately they would not cover the cost. It was not  accidental and as the son did not insure himself, if the insurance company will not  pay out and I believe they would not because it was not a tenant, therefore,

  1. 21 Vanish booked his goods with Superfast Freight Carriers at Delhi for being carried to Firozabad. The goods receipt note mentioned that all the disputes would be subject to jurisdiction of the Mumbai Court. Vanish lodged a complaint for certain deficiency in service against the transporter in the District Forum at Delhi.  Superfast Carriers contested that District Forum at Delhi had no jurisdiction to entertain the complaint as the head office of the transporter was at Mumbai and the jurisdiction has been clearly stated in the goods receipt not.  Is  the content  nation of the transporter tenable? Explain briefly?               

Answer  : The contention of the transporter is not tenable. This is based on the facts in the  pares vs. Rosh an freight carrier case, where in the national commission has ruled that the parties could not confer jurisdiction on a Court which had no jurisdiction.  The agreement signed between the parties conferring exclusion jurisdiction on a particular court was of no avail. In the case at hand, Vanish had booked his goods with superfast freight carriers in Delhi for being carried to Firozabad. As per sec 11 (2) ©, a complain shall be instituted within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the cause of action arises, wholly or in part. In case of deficiency in service, Vanish is competent to lodge a complaint in Delhi.

 

 

  1. 22. With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the       following giving reasons in support of your answer.

I)Such Duke Ltd. dispatched certain consignments of goods by road through Fastrack Roadways Ltd. The goods were unloaded and stored in a go down enrooted on the suggestion of consignee.  A fire broke out in the neighboring go down spread to the go down and goods were destroyed.  The Fastrack Roadways Ltd. claimed that there was neither negligence nor deficiency in service on their part and goods were being carried at “Owner risk” and since no special premium was paid, they were not responsible for the loss caused by fire.  Whether Fastrack Roadways Ltd. is liable to pay damages to consignor?

ii)Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) formulated a scheme called ‘salary saving scheme’ under which employees of an organisation could buy an insurance policy.  Premium due on each policy was collected by the employer from the salary of the employees nor did it issue any premium notice.  When the widow of the deceased employee made a claim to LIC on the death of her husband, the LIC repudiated the claim on the ground that four installments of premium had not been paid.  The widow was approached the consumer forum for redressed. Is the LIC liable for deficiency in service? Explain?

     iii). Raman booked a ticket from Delhi to New York by Lufthansa Airlines.  The  airport  authorities in New Delhi did not find any fault in his visa and other documents.  However, at Frankfurt airport authorities instituted proceedings of verification because of which Raman missed his flight to New York.  After necessary verification, Raman was able to reach New York by the next flight.  The airline authorities’ tendered apology to Raman for the inconvenience caused to him and also paid as goodwill gesture a sum of Rs. 5,000.  Raman intends to  institute proceedings under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 against Lufthansa Airlines for deficiency in service.  Will he succeed?               

Answer  :  I)    The present problem is based on math bros exist international ltd. V best roadways ltd 2000 (2) scale 5ft, where the national commission dismissed the claim. The supreme court allowed the appeal and held that the liability of the carrier is that of an insurer and is absolute in terms in the sense that the carrier  has to deliver the good, at destination indicated by the consignor  safe, without causing any damage and without any loss to theme.

 

  1. 23.With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide t he following giving reasons in support of your answer.

I)Son sent all relevant documents in an envelope regarding consignment of goods to a buyer in the USA through Fast Service Couriers.  The documents did not reach the buyer as a consequence of which the buyer could not take delivery of the goods.  By the time the duplicate copies of the document had been received by the buyer, the season of the goods was over.  He claimed that he had suffered a loss of US $ 5,000 as a result of the negligence of the courier.  The State Commission ordered the payment to be made by the Fast Service Couriers, but the National Commission in appeal reversed the order and ordered payment of US $ 100 only as per the receipt issued by the Fast Service Courier to the consignor at the time of the dispatch of the latter.  Advise Shan.

ii)Mahesh purchased a machine from Astute Ltd. to operate it himself for earning his liver hood.  He took the assistance of a person to assist him in operating the machine.  The machine developed fault during the warranty period. He filed a claim in the consumer forum against the company for deficiency in service.  Astute Ltd. alleged that Mahesh did not operate the machine himself but had appointed a person exclusively to operate the machine.  Will Mahesh succeed?

iii)Pilli purchased a car by taking a loan from Kerala cooperative Bank Ltd. and gave post-dated cheques to the bank not only in respect of repayment of loan installments but also of premium of insurance policy for two succeeding years. On the expiry of the policy.  Pilli’s car met with an accident.  Will Pilli succeed in getting a claim against the Bank?                                                          

Answer:  Shan sent all relevant documents in an envelope regarding consignment of goods to a trey in the U.S through fast service couriers. The documents did not reach  the trey as a consequence of which the buyer could not delivery of the

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