BT0070, Operating Systems

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Assignment

 

DRIVE FALL 2014
PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0070, Operating Systems
BK ID B0954
CREDIT & MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

Note: Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

1 Describe the mechanism of process creation in an OS.

Answer: Process creation is only the first management action performed by the OS on the process. Since the process will use the resources made available by the OS, further OS activity will typically be needed to manage those resources on behalf of the process. This involves the release of the CPU control from the process to the OS. This release is triggered by various conditions that can usually be classified as follows:

 

 

2 Suppose that the following processes arrive for execution at the times indicated.

Process                Burst Time

P1                           24

P2                           3

P3                           3

  1. Suppose the process arrives in the order P1, P2, P3 and
  2. Suppose the process arrive in the order P2, P3, P1.

For both the above situation draw the Grantt Chart and calculate the waiting time for each process and average waiting time.

 

Answer: Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P1 , P2 , P3 ,The Gantt Chart for the schedule is:

Waiting time for P1 = 0; P2 = 24; P3 = 27, Average waiting time: (0 + 24 + 27)/3 = 17 Suppose that the

processes arrive in the order P2 , P3

 

 

3 Write short notes on:

  1. Critical section problem

Answer: Critical section problem is defined as :

  • Set of instructions that must be controlled so as to allow exclusive access to one process
  • Rarely: access to the critical section is limited to n processes instead of one process
  • Execution of the

 

  1. Buffering

Answer: It is a process of storing data in memory area called Buffers while data is being transferred between two devices or between a device and an application. Buffering is done for 3 reasons: a. To cope with the speed mismatch between producer (or sender) and consumer (or receiver) of a data stream. b. To adapt between the devices having different data-transfer size. c. To support copy semantics for application I/O. a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is

 

 

 

4 What are TLBs? Why they are required in paging?

Answer: A translation look aside buffer (TLB) is a cache that memory management hardware uses to improve virtual address translation speed. The majority of desktop, laptop, and server processors includes one or more TLBs in the memory management hardware, and it is nearly always present in any hardware that utilizes paged or segmented virtual memory.

 

 

 

5 Describe the techniques of free space management of free space list.

Answer: Techniques of free space management:

 

Bit-Vector

Frequently, the free-space list is implemented as a bit map or bit vector. Each block is represented by a 1 bit. If the block is free, the bit is 0; if the block is allocated, the bit is 1.

For example, consider a disk where blocks 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 25, 26, and 27 are free, and the rest of the blocks are allocated. The free-space bit map would be:

 

11000011000000111001111110001111…

 

 

 

6 What are computer viruses? How do they affect our system?

Answer: A Computer virus is a small program that interferes with normal functions of the computer. Usually a virus program is attached to a computer file. The file to which a virus is attached is called infected file. When the infected file is copied on a disk, the virus is also copied and It hides itself on the disk.

 

Activation of a Virus

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BT0068, Computer Organization and Architecture

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Assignment

 

DRIVE FALL 2014
PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0068, Computer Organization and Architecture
BK ID B0952
CREDIT & MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

Note: Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1(a) Subtract (76425-28321) using 10’s complement. Show the steps.

 

Answer:  10’s complement of 28321 is 71679

Then add   7 6 4 2 5
+ 7 1 6 7 9
 

 

(b) Subtract (28531-345620) using 10’s complement. Show the steps.

Answer: It is obvious that the difference is negative. We
also have to

 

 

2 What do you mean by bus in computer system? Explain the bus structure.

Answer: A bus is a collection of wires that connect several devices within a computer system. When a word of data is transferred between units, all its bits are transferred in parallel. A computer must have some lines for addressing and control purposes.

 

Three main groupings of lines:

 

 

3 Explain the instruction format with diagram and examples.

Answer: The MIPS R2000/R3000 ISA has fixed-width 32 bit instructions. Fixed-width instructions are common for RISC processors because they make it easy to fetch instructions without having to decode. These instructions must be stored at word-aligned addresses.

The MIPS ISA instructions fall into three categories: R-type, I-type, and J-type. Not all ISAs divide their instructions this neatly. This is one reason

 

 

 

4 Explain the non-negative integers and negative integers representation.

Answer: A negative number is a real number that is less than zero. Such numbers are often used to represent the amount of a loss or absence. For example, a debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset, or a decrease in some quantity may be thought of as a negative increase. Negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature.

 

 

 

5 Explain the mapping functions between the main memory and CPU.

Answer: A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average time to access data from the main memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations. Most CPUs have different independent caches, including instruction and data caches, where the data cache is usually organized as a hierarchy of more cache levels

 

 

6 Write a short note on DMA controller. Draw the diagram of it.

Answer: The controller for a device employing DMA must have the capability of generating address signals for the memory, as well as all of the memory control signals. The processor informs the DMA controller that data is available (or is to be placed into) a block of memory locations starting at a certain address in memory. The controller is also informed of the length of the data block.

 

Many hardware systems use DMA, including disk

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BT0078, Website Design

 

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PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0078, Website Design
CREDIT 2
BK ID B1005
MAX. MARKS 30

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  1. 1. What are HTML logical tags? Explain all the logical tags.

Answer:A tag that is applied to an individual character is known as a character tag. A character tag can be grouped into two categories: physical and logical. (Note: physical styles are associated with physical character tags; logical styles are associated with logical character tags.)As you work with these tags to style your text in different ways, you will discover that there is not really big difference how the text is displayed on a browser. For instance, you can italicize your

 

  1. 2. Describe the following in context of validating XML documentswith DTDs
  2. Concept of data validation
  3. Writing document type definition (DTD) files
  4. Internal and external DTDs
  5. Validating parsers
  6. The NMTOKEN and NMTOKENS Type

 

Answer: Concept of data validation: A valid document includes a document type declaration that identifies the DTD the document satisfies. The DTD lists all the elements, attributes, and entities the document uses and the contexts in which it uses them. The DTD may list items the document does not use as well. Validity operates on the principle that everything not permitted is forbidden. Everything in the document must match a declaration in the DTD. If a document has a document type declaration and the document satisfies the DTD that the document type declaration indicates, then the document is said to be valid. If it does not, it is said to be invalid.

There are many things the DTD does not say. In p

 

  1. Writing document type definition (DTD) files: While XML is extremely flexible, not all the programs that read particular XML documents are so flexible. Many programs can work with only some XML applications but not others. For example, Adobe Illustrator 10 can read and write Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) files, but you wouldn’t expect it to understand a Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) document. And within a particular XML application, it’s often important to ensure that a given document indeed adheres to the rules

 

 

  1. Internal and external DTDs: When you’re first developing a DTD, it’s often useful to keep the DTD and the canonical example document in the same file so you can modify and check them simultaneously. Therefore, the document type declaration may actually contain the DTD between square brackets rather than referencing it at an external URI. Example 3-4 demonstrates. Some document type declarations contain some declarations directly but link in others using a SYSTEM or PUBLIC identifier. The part of the DTD between the brackets is called the internal DTD subset. All the parts that come from outside this document are called the external DTD subset.

 

  1. Validating parsers: The declarations in the internal subset form part of the DOCTYPE in the document itself. The declarations in the external subset are located in a separate text file. The external subset may be referenced via a public identifier and/or a system identifier. Programs for reading documents may not be required to read the external subset.Note that any valid SGML or XML document that references an external subset in its DTD, or whose body contains references to parsed external entities declared in its DTD (including those declared within its

 

  1. The NMTOKEN and NMTOKENS Type: The effective value of the attribute can only be a valid name token (or a spaced-separated list of such name tokens), but it is not restricted to a unique identifier within the document; this name

 

 

  1. 3. Define XSL-FO. Explain the following:

 

  1. Purpose of XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO)

 

  1. XSL-FO Documents and XSL-FO Processors

 

Answer:Purpose of XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO): XSL Formatting Objects, or XSL-FO, is a markup language for XML document formatting which is most often used to generate PDFs. XSL-FO is part of XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language), a set of W3C technologies designed for the transformation and formatting of XML data. The other parts of XSL are XSLT and XPath. Version 1.1 of XSL-FO was published in 2006.  XSL-FO was discontinued: the last update for the Working Draft was in January 2012, and its Working Group closed in November 2013.

 

  1. XSL-FO Documents and XSL-FO Processors: XML was designed as a portable means to exchange data between different applications; data presentation is often left to the applications themselves. An XML document typically describes data in an orderly manner, with indentation being the only formatting. In this section I take a look at the use of XSL-FO as a specialized XML vocabulary designed to describe document appearance. I also provide some tips on how to use XSL-FO.

A definition of FO and its role in XSL

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BT0077, Multimedia Systems

 


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PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0077, Multimedia Systems
CREDIT 2
BK ID B1004
MAX. MARKS 30

 1. Define digital multimedia and explain digital multimediachallenges.

Answer:Multimedia, in personal computing, software and applications that combine text, high-quality sound, two- and three-dimensional graphics, animation, photo images, and full-motion video. In order to work with multimedia, a personal computer typically requires a powerful microprocessor, large memory and storage capabilities, a high-quality monitor and a video accelerator, external loudspeakers or headphones and a sound card (or sound board) for improved sound generation, and a CD-ROM (see compact disc ) or DVD-ROM (see digital versatile disc )

 

Q.2. Explain the following color models

  1. HSB model

Answer: Based on the human perception of color, the HSB model describes three fundamental characteristics of color:

 

  • Hue is the color reflected from or transmitted through an object. It is measured as a location on the standard color wheel, expressed as a degree between 0 and 360. In common use, hue is identified by the name of the

 

  1. RGB model

Answer : RGB and its subset CMY form the most basic and well-known color model. This model bears closest

 

  1. CMYK model

Answer : Cyan, magenta, and yellow correspond roughly to the primary colors in art production: red, blue, and yellow. In

 

  1. L*a*b model

Answer : The L*a*b color model is based on the model proposed by the Commission Internationaled’Eclairage (

 

 

 

  1. 3. Describe the following file formats:
  2. Photoshop Format
  3. Photoshop EPS
  4. EPS TIFF or EPS PICT Preview
  5. PCX

 

Answer:Photoshop Format:Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for Windows and OS X.  Photoshop was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, it has become the de facto industry standard in raster graphics editing, such that the terms “photoshopping” and “photoshop contest” were born. It can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports masks, alpha compositing and several

Photoshop EPS: The EPS file type is primarily associated with ‘Encapsulated PostScript’. There are two distinct types of .EPs files, one of which is a vector based graphics file and can be opened and easily edited for type, color, etc. in Adobe Illustrator or PC vector based programs like Corel Draw. They can be CMYK color, or flat pantone color based. These files could be “placed’ or “imported” into Pagemaker (or Word, Quark, etc.), but not opened by it. They can be almost infinitely scaled in size without degrading the output because they

 

EPS TIFF or EPS PICT Preview:Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) language file format can contain both vector and bitmap graphics and is supported by virtually all graphics, illustration, and page-layout programs. EPS format is used to transfer PostScript artwork between applications. When you open an EPS file containing vector graphics,

PCX:PCX, standing for Personal Computer Exchange, is an image file format developed by the now-defunct ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia. It was the native file format for PC Paintbrush and became one of the first widely accepted DOS imaging standards, although it has since been succeeded by more sophisticated image

 

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BT0076, TCP/IP

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PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0076, TCP/IP
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0965
MAX. MARKS 60

 

  1. 1. Draw the diagram of TCP/IP protocol suit. Explain networkinterface layer and Internet layer.

 

Answer:Understanding the intricacies of how computers interact is an important part of networking and is of equal interest to a sysadmin as well as to a developer. In this article, we will make an attempt to discuss the concept of communication from the very basic fundamental level that needs to be understood by everybody.

TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE

Communications between computers on a network is done through protocol suits. The most widely used and most widely available protocol suite is TCP/IP protocol suite. A protocol suit consists of a layered architecture where each layer depicts some func

 

  1. 2. What do you mean by frame relay? Describe the frame relayframe format with diagram.

 

Answer: Frame relay began as a stripped-down version of the X.25 protocol, releasing itself from the error-correcting burden most commonly associated with X.25. When frame relay detects an error, it simply drops the offending packet. Frame relay uses the concept of shared access and relies on a technique referred to as “best-effort”, whereby error-correction practically does not exist and practically no guarantee of reliable data delivery occurs. Frame relay provides an industry-standard encapsulation, utilizing the strengths of high-speed, packet-switched technology able to service multiple virtual circuits and protocols between connected devices, such as two router

 

  1. 3. Define ports and explain the two types of ports.

Answer:A parallel port is an interface allowing a personal computer (PC) to transmit or receive data down multiple bundled cables to a peripheral device such as a printer. The most common parallel port is a printer port known as the Centronics port. A parallel port has multiple connectors and in theory allows data to be sent simultaneously down several cables at once. Later versions allow bi-directional communications. This technology is still used today for low-data-rate communications such as dot-matrix printing.

The standard for the bi-directional version of a para

 

 

  1. 4. What do you mean by Telnet? Describe Telnet operation.

Answer:Telnet’s overall function is to define a means by which a user or process on one machine can access and use another machine as if it were locally connected. This makes Telnet inherently client/server in operation, like so many other application protocols in TCP/IP. Usually, the Telnet client is a piece of software that acts as an interface to the user, processing keystrokes and user commands and presenting output from the remote machine. The Telnet server is a program running on a remote computer that has been set up to allow remote sessions.

  1. 5. Define and explain Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP4).

Describe Fundamental IMAP4 Electronic Mail Models.

 

Answer: IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from your local server. IMAP (the latest version is IMAP Version 4) is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server. You (or your e-mail client) can view just the heading and the sender of the letter and then decide whether to download the mail. You can also create and manipulate multiple folders or mailboxes on the server

  1. 6. Draw and explain SNMP message format.

Answer: The communication of management information is accomplished through the exchange of SNMP messages that contain protocol data units (PDUs). Like the messages of most TCP/IP protocols, these PDUs are designed to use a particular field format, and are created, addressed and transported according to specific protocol rules. SNMP messages include fields that control the operation of the protocol, and carry a “payload” of management information in the form of Management Information Base (MIB) objects.  In this section I describe

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BT0075, RDBMS and MySQL

 

 

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PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0075, RDBMS and MySQL
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1003
MAX. MARKS 60

 

 

 

 

  1. 1. What are the new features in MySQL 5.1?

Answer: Since the big leap forward to MySQL 5.0, it’s taken the MySQL development team three years, during which there have been a whole string of pre-release versions, to release the new version 5.1 of the popular database. MySQL 5.1.30 (General Availability) is available to download from various mirrors.  The most significant new features in MySQL 5.1 are the partitioning functions. These allow large tables to be distributed across multiple physical files and hard drives. MySQL supports what is known as horizontal partitioning, in which records are selected on the basis of a set criterion and saved in different locations. DATE columns are

  1. 2. How to alter databases and tables in MySQL? Explain with thehelp of examples.

Answer: ALTER TABLE changes the structure of a table. For example, you can add or delete columns, create or destroy indexes, change the type of existing columns, or rename columns or the table itself. You can also change characteristics such as the storage engine used for the table or the table comment.

Following the table name, specify the alterations to be made. If none are given, ALTER TABLE does nothing.

  1. 3. Explain MySQL update and replace statements with example

 

Answer:There may be a requirement where existing data in a MySQL table needs to be modified. You can do so by using SQL UPDATE command. This will modify any field value of any MySQL table.

Syntax:

Here is generic SQL syntax of UPDATE command to modify data into MySQL table:

UPDATE table_name SET field1=new-value1, field2=

  1. 4. Explain all the date and time functions in MySQL.

 

Answer: There is exclusive fields type to store Date and Date –Time in mysql or in other databases. As we know in any script date plays important role and we need to do many calculation and formatting to handle the date issues. It can be a simple Library book issue management to a customer compliant handling, these date fields are important for handling related data in a table.

MySQL have several date & time related functions to use in different situations and requirements. We will discuss some of the important functions here and use them for developing some sample codes.

  • date_add to add date & time to field data:We can use date_add function to calculate date & time values and store them in MySql table. Future

 

  1. 5. Describe the cursors in MySQL in detail.

 

Answer: Cursor is one of very useful option if you are doing database programming. In mysql cursor is a kind of loop facility given to traverse in the result of sql one by one. By using cursor in mysql we can operate on every result of the record. Cursor are supported in stored procedure and function only. By using MySql cursor we can loop through every

  1. 6. Briefly describe the error log and general query log in MySQL.

Answer: If you are a web developer, you need to refer to various log files, in order to debug your application or improve its performance. Logs is the best place to start troubleshooting. Concerning the famous MySQL database server (or MariaDB server), you need to refer to the following log files:

  • The Error Log. It contains information about errors that occur while the server is running (also server start and stop)

 

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BT0074, OOPS with JAVA

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0074, OOPS with JAVA
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1002
MAX. MARKS 60

 

 

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  1. 1. What are the keywords that java supports? Describe the datatypes available in java programming language?

 

Answer:In the Java programming language, a keyword is one of 50 reserved words that have a predefined meaning in the language; because of this, programmers cannot use keywords as names for variables, methods, classes, or as any other identifier. Due to their special functions in the language, most integrated development environments for Java use syntax highlighting to display keywords in a different color for easy identification.The Java programming language is a statically typed language, which means that every variable and every expression has a type that is known at compile time.The Java programming language is also a strongly typed

 

 

 

  1. 2. Describe StringBuffer class in java. List all the functionsrelevant to it and explain any five of them.

 

Answer:StringBuffer class is a mutable class unlike the String class which is immutable. Both the capacity and character string of a StringBuffer Class. StringBuffer can be changed dynamically. String buffers are preferred when heavy modification of character strings is involved (appending, inserting, deleting, modifying etc).

Strings can be obtained from string buffers. Since the StringBuffer class does not override the equals() method from the Object class, contents of string buffers should be converted to String objects for string comparison.
A StringIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown if an

  1. 3. Describe with the help of an example the implementation ofinheritance in java.

 

Answer: Inheritance in Java is an Object oriented or  OOPS concepts, which allows to emulate real world Inheritance behavior, Inheritance allows code reuse in Object oriented programming language e.g. Java. Along with Abstraction, Polymorphism and Encapsulation, Inheritance forms basis of Object oriented programming. Inheritance is implemented using extends keyword in Java and When one Class extends another Class it inherit all non private members including fields and methods. Inheritance in Java can be best understand in terms of Parent and Child

 

 

  1. 4. Describe the catch and finally block statement in java withexamples.

 

Answer: Java’s finally block is useful in exception handling and always used in conjunction with try block. There should at least be one try block that finally block can be associated to. The try encloses a block of code in which exception may occur. When a piece of code throws an exception, it stops processing the remaining code in try block and transfers the control to an appropriate catch block if a catch block exists (catch block is optional), else control gets

 

  1. 5. Draw and Explain the Life cycle of a java applet with anexample.

 

Answer:Various states, an applet, undergoes between its object creation and object removal (when the job is over) is known as life cycle. Each state is represented by a method. There exists 5 states represented by 5 methods. That is, in its life of execution, the applet exists (lives) in one of these 5 states.

These methods are known as “callback

 

 

  1. 6. Explain all the steps of running the beanbox.

Answer: JavaBeans are reusable software components written in Java. These components may be built into an application using an appropriate building environment. The Bean Development Kit (BDK) from Sun includes a simple example of a building environment which uses beans, called the beanbox, and some sample beans.  This note will tell you how to set up and use the BDK on the Computer Science & Informatics Ubuntu Linux workstations and how to add your own beans to the BeanBox environment.

The BDK

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