Archive | 2013

IB0011– International Marketing

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SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0011– International Marketing
BK ID B1199


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


1 Discuss the scope of international marketing. How is international marketing more complex than domestic marketing?

Answer : Scope of International Marketing

International Marketing constitutes the following areas of business:-


  • Exports and Imports: International trade can be a good beginning to venture into international marketing.


  • Contractual Agreements: Patent licensing, turn key operations, co – production, technical and managerial know – how and licensing agreements are all a part of international marketing.


  • Joint Ventures: A form of collaborative association for a considerable period is known as joint venture. A joint venture comes into existence




2 What are trade barriers? Compare tariff and non-tariff barriers.

Answer :  Trade barriers are measures that governments or public authorities introduce to make imported goods or services less competitive than locally produced goods and services. Not everything that prevents or restricts trade can be characterised as a trade barrier.



A trade barrier may be linked to the very product or service that is traded, for example technical requirements. A barrier can also be of an administrative nature, for example rules and procedures in connection with the transaction. In a number of areas, special international ground rules have been agreed, which limit the ways in which countries can regulate trade. It means that some barriers are legal while others are illegal.


Trade barriers within the EU are subject to special rules that apply to the internal market of the EU.


Sometimes it may also be possible to assist companies that face obstacles to trade that do not fall under the definition of actual trade barriers.





3 How is international marketing research carried out? Discuss in brief.

Answer : Four Steps of International Marketing Research

Framework for international marketing research:

Marketing research are the formal studies of specific situations. As discussed in the earlier lectures

major issue in decision making is that managers often fail to appropriately understand the issues or

problemsand hence endup making right decisions for wrong problems.


Since international markets areoften foreign toamarketerthere are evenmore chances that the marker mat miss-understand theproblems/ issues. To avoid such scenarios itis beneficial first to conduct exploratory research for understanding the issues / situation better.


A business research process consists of four steps;

Step 1:

Defining the problem (the decision for which info. is needed) and research objectives along with:

market structure

·  size of market, stage of development etc.

product concept

·  meaning of product in a particular environment

Marketing research project may have one of the three types of objectives;

· Exploratory research – is to gather preliminary




4 List the factors that affect the pricing strategy of an international firm? Explain the different pricing strategies the firms can adopt.

Answer : Intelligent pricing is one of the most important elements of any successful business venture. Smart small business owners will weigh many marketplace factors before setting prices for their goods and services.


Labour costs consist of the cost of the work that goes into the manufacturing of a product or the execution of a service. Direct labour costs can be figured by multiplying the cost of labour per hour by the number of employee-hours required to complete the job. Business owners, however, need to keep in mind that the “cost of labour per hour” includes not only hourly wage or salary of the relevant employees, but also the costs of the fringe benefits that those workers receive.



Material costs are the costs of all materials that are





5 Write short notes on:

a) International commercial terms(Inco terms)

Answer : Inco terms :


International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) that are widely used in International commercial transactions or Procurement processes. A series of three-letter trade terms related to common contractual sales practices, the Inco terms rules are intended primarily to clearly communicate the tasks, costs, and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods.

The Inco terms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities, and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from



6 Explain the difference between the role of World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

Answer : What is the World Bank?


The World Bank provides over $20 billion in assistance to developing and transition countries every year. It was originally established in 1945 to support reconstruction in Europe after World War Two. Two years later it issued its first loan: $250 million to France for post-war reconstruction. Its mission has since grown.


Today, the  Bank’s mission is to reduce poverty. It has 187 member countries and provides money for activities ranging from agriculture to trade policy, from health and education to energy and mining. The World Bank is not a bank in the common sense of the word . A single person cannot open an account or ask for a loan.


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BK ID B1759



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.1 Explain the goals of international financial management. Give complete explanation on Gold Standard 1876-1913. List down the advantages and disadvantages of Gold Standard.


Ans : Goals of international financial management :


1. Disseminating:


Timely dissemination of monthly, quarterly and annual financial information to internal and external stakeholders is a significant goal of financial management. It ensures that financial information is prepared in accordance with accounting principles and International Financial Reporting Standards.


2. Planning:



Q.2 Give an introduction on capital account with its sub-categories. Discuss about capital account convertibility.


Ans : Introduction on capital account :


In macroeconomics and international finance, the Capital Account (also known as financial account) is one of two primary components of the balance of payments, the other being the current account. Whereas the current account reflects a nation’s net income, the capital account reflects net change in ownership of national assets. A surplus in the capital account means money is flowing into the country, but unlike a surplus in the current account, the inbound flows will effectively represent borrowings or sales of assets rather than payment for work.


Sub-categories of capital account :



Q.3 Explain the concept of Swap. Write down its features and various types of interest rate swap.


Ans : Introduction of Swap :


In finance, a foreign exchange swap, forex swap, or FX swap is a simultaneous purchase and sale of identical amounts of one currency for another with two different value dates (normally spot to forward). Foreign Exchange Swap allows sums of a certain currency to be used to fund charges designated in another currency without acquiring foreign exchange risk.

A foreign exchange swap consists of two legs:

  • a spot foreign exchange transaction, and
  • a forward foreign exchange transaction.



Q. 4 Elaborate on measuring exchange rate movements. Explain the factors that influence exchange rates.


Ans : Measuring exchange rate movement:


Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. Exchange rates play a vital role in a country’s level of trade, which is critical to most every free market economy in the world. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched, analyzed and governmentally manipulated economic measures. But exchange rates matter on a smaller scale as well: they impact the real return of an investor’s portfolio. Here we look at some





Q.5 Write short notes on:

a. International Credit Markets


Ans : 1. The broad market for companies looking to raise funds through debt issuance. The credit market encompasses both investment-grade bonds and junk bonds, as well as short-term commercial paper.


2. The market for debt offerings as seen by investors of bonds, notes and securitized obligations such as mortgage pools and collateralized debt



Q. 6 Country risk is the risk of investing in a country, where a change in the business environment adversely affects the profit or the value of the assets in a specific country. Explain the country risk factors and assessment of risk factors.


Ans : Introduction of country risk factors :


Country risk refers to the risk of investing in a country, dependent on changes in the business environment that may adversely affect operating profits or the value of assets in a specific country. For example, financial factors such as currency controls, devaluation or regulatory changes, or stability factors such as mass riots, civil war and other potential events contribute to companies’ operational risks. This term is also sometimes referred to as political risk; however, country risk is a more general term that generally refers only to risks affecting all companies operating within a particular country.


Two main risk sources need be considered when investing in a foreign country:



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BK ID B1219



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.1 How do you classify the different types of business Intelligence


Ans : Business intelligence is a set of theories, methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business purposes. BI can handle large amounts of information to help identify and develop new opportunities.

Some of the benefits of having a Business Intelligence system include the ability to access data in a common format from multiple sources and a way to measure goals and analyze cross-departmental data. There are two different types of Business Intelligence, each serves the main purpose of providing large quantities of information in an easy to view and




Q.2 a. Similarity measures determine the similarity between the two objects. What are the four methods to determine the similarity characteristic between the two objects?


Ans :   The four methods determine the similarity characteristic between the two objects are:-


1. Stimulus Generalization  :


A few years ago a chapter on similarity in a book about animal behavior would have been titled  “Stimulus Generalization,” and similarity would be defined by relative responding across stimuli in generalization and discrimination tasks.


2. Multidimensional Scaling  :


Multidimensional scaling is the measurement procedure




Q. 3 Define data mining and describe the architectural framework of data mining.


Ans : Data Mining :


Generally, data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge discovery) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information – information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. Data mining software is one of a number of analytical tools for analyzing data. It allows users to analyze data from many different dimensions or angles, categorize it, and summarize the relationships identified. Technically, data mining is the process of finding correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large relational databases.




Q.4 Discuss the features of various types of business models with the help of examples.


Ans :


1.The Add-On model:


In this instance, the core offering is priced competitively but there are numerous extras that drive the final price up so the consumer is not getting the deal they initially assumed. Example:-If you have recently tried to buy an airline ticket or car insurance, you will have spotted that the number of extras you are offered can almost reach double figures!


2. The Advertising model:




Q.5 A non-profit organisation – a leader in promoting urban sustainability in India – has the permission to supervise and propose resourceful energy and source utilisation by corporate entities across India. The customer was using spreadsheets to confine various information with regards to unit consumption, charges, research, and analytics of Energy Usage. The Intensity for both Heating Degree Days & Cooling Degree Days, and it was suffering from the disadvantages of utilisation of multiple non-standard spreadsheets. The crucial challenge of the organisation was to develop excellence of data; time needed to gather & authenticate information, distribute graphs & analysis with cyclic time series, and carry out other ad hoc queries & difficult analysis.

Customer also wanted a BI solution that is easy to use, available from web, and needs negligible human resources to execute these periodic tasks. Elegant BI Business Intelligence solution deployed with customised ETL solution has offered web based, simple to use, and error-free analytic system to client, in short time span and small budget. Research coordinators at client side, now have complete picture of the energy usage patterns and trends in hours rather than days, and they spend more time doing other ad hoc research and data mining, rather than collecting, consolidating, and validating data from large number of spreadsheets received from member organisations every month. This initiative is helping customer sustain its management position for a better cause of supporting sustainable metropolitan communities in India.

a. What are the aspects of BI framework? Explain each of them in detail

b. What are the tools used in the above case study to meet the challenges of the organization and to maintain food quality as well?


a. Ans : Four aspects of BI framework:-


1. Determine information needs by business user, business analyst, and BI analyst / designer. The purpose of BI is to provide cross-organizational business analysis capabilities to all business users in the organization. Demand for information comes from various business users located within different functional departments. BI analyst / designer gather and specify the information needs coming from business users




(b)  Ans : Tools used in the above case study to meet the challenges of the organization :


The most common tools used for meeting the challenges of the organization and as well as for maintaining the food quality are given below. They are listed in the following order: Increasing cost, increasing functionality, increasing business intelligence complexity, and decreasing number of total users.


1. Excel :


Take a guess what’s the most common business intelligence tool? You might be surprised to find out it’s Microsoft Excel. There are several reasons for this:

1. It’s relatively cheap.




Q.6 ABC is an online educational organization which offers number of programmes. Throughout the world. It has its franchise all over the world. It has to maintain huge data about all the all the programmes that are currently running and also that are withdrawn but still running for old students. How should it plan to implement the business intelligence solutions? What are the limitations of Business Intelligence?


Ans :  Building a BI solution:


The term Business Intelligence (BI) represents the tools and systems that play a key role in the strategic planning process of the corporation. These systems allow a company to gather, store, access and analyze corporate data to aid in decision-making. Generally these systems will illustrate business intelligence in the areas of customer profiling, customer support, market research, market segmentation, product profitability, statistical analysis,


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BK ID B1481



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q. 1 A multiplexer takes several data communication lines or signals and converts them into one data communication line or signal at the sending location. Explain the basic methods of multiplexing.


Ans : Multiplexing is the name given to techniques, which allow more than one message to be transferred via the same communication channel. The basic methods are:


1. Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM:

2. Time Division Multiplexing TDM:

3. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)  :


1. Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM:


In telecommunications, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is



Q.2 Write short notes on

a. Network quality of service

b. Gateways

c. Mobile Telephone system

d. Geostationary satellites

e. Ethernet


Ans :

a. Network quality of service :


Quality of service (QoS) is the overall performance of a of telephony or computer network, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network. To quantitatively measure quality of service several related aspects of the network service are often considered, such as error rates, bandwidth, throughput, transmission delay, availability, jitter, etc. In particular, much technology has been developed to allow computer networks to become as useful as telephone networks for audio conversations, as well as supporting new applications with even stricter service demands.




Q.3 Describe the architectural framework of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).


Ans : integrated architecture framework :


The Integrated Architecture Framework (IAF) is an enterprise architecture framework that covers business, information, information system and technology infrastructure. The first version was released in 1996 and was based on the Zachman Framework and Spewaks ideas about Enterprise Architecture Planning. The Integrated Architecture Framework is:

  • A comprehensive framework to deliver market-leading solutions
  • Adaptable to the specific needs of an organization
  • Scalable from individual projects to enterprise-wide transformation
  • A recognized architecture method in The Open Group’s IT Architecture Certification program (ITAC).



Q.4 LAN is a privately owned networks which spans over a size of up to a few kilometers in a building or a campus.


Ans : a. How can LAN be differentiated from other Networks.


A local-area network (LAN) is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings, however, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN). LANs have a number of  characteristics on the basis of which it is differentiated from other networks:

1. transmission medium is shared by all devices, eg connected by a common cable hence: transmission by one device is received by all others, ie a



Q.5 Read the following case study thoroughly and answer the following questions:

India is the second most populous country in the world. Even with abundant natural resources, it is still considered a developing country. In India, it is necessary that research and development that has taken place in the field of communication should reach rural areas. This is because nearly 70% of the population lives in villages. In India, physical infrastructure such as roads and highways is still not fully developed. Wired communication requires digging of roads, laying of cables and erecting towers. It involves tremendous human effort and enormous capital outlay in the rural and hilly areas. Hence wireless communication implemented through satellites can play a vital role. Realising the importance of satellite communication, India implemented Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) in 1975-76. This made it possible to broadcast educational and other programs related to family planning, agriculture and health issues through television sets even in the remote areas. This initiative helps in creating awareness and also helps government in bringing developmental schemes to the door step of the masses. An advantage of satellite communication is that, satellites can amplify the signals and resend it to thousands of stations on the ground at the same time. Digital TV and radio programmes can directly reach the receivers found in the cars and homes through a satellite. For large organisations, it has become much cheaper to transmit commercial information to thousands of their dealers scattered across the globe by means of satellites. Wired communication can easily get disrupted when the cables are damaged intentionally or unintentionally. However, microwave satellite communication is not affected even in the adverse environmental conditions. Thus, during the times of natural disasters, the physical infrastructure of wired communication may be destroyed. But still contact can be maintained with the affected people through the satellites. In addition, remote sensing satellites can be used to keep an eye on the enemy movements, determine the locations of natural resources, warn about impeding cyclones and exactly pinpoint the presence of fishes or submerged objects in the oceans or seas. Another form of wireless communication is the mobile communication. Mobile handsets have made it possible for the people not only to converse among themselves but also carry out banking and e-commerce transactions. Satellites have also made it possible the implementation of Global System for Mobile Communication(GSM) through which wireless Internet can be provided.

a. Highlight the advantages of wireless communication over wired communication.

b. In what ways, rural India has benefited through satellite communication.


Ans : a. Advantages of wireless communication over wired communication


Of the most important advantages of wireless networks that have made ​​them spread significantly and replace wired networks:


1. Flexibility (wirelessness):


the benefits of wireless networks over wired networks and one of the benefits of this flexibility, as radio waves go through walls and wireless computer you can be in any domain Mkanaly NickServ Point.


2. Ease of use:




Q. 6 Explain world wide web in detail.


Ans :  WWW :


The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not the same. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the web is one of the services that runs on the Internet.



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BK ID B1217



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.1 How is DBMS classified based on several criteria? Explain each one of them with few examples where ever required


Ans :  Several criteria are normally used to classify DBMSs. These are discussed below :


1. Based on data model

2. Based on the number of users

3. Based on the ways database is distributed


1. Based on data model:


The most popular data model in use today is the relational data model. Well known DBMSs like Oracle, MS SQL Server, DB2, MySQL support this model. Other traditional models can be named hierarchical data model, or network data model. In the recent years, we are getting familiar with object-oriented data models but these models have not had widespread use. Some examples of Object-oriented DBMSs are O2, Object Store or Jasmine. . The main data model used in many current commercial  DBMSs is the relational data model. The object



Q.2 Differentiate between B+ tree and B- tree. Explain them with diagrams


Ans:B+tree :

A B+ tree is a balanced tree in which every path from the root of the tree to a leaf is of the same length, and each non leaf node of the tree has between [n/2] and [n] children, where n is fixed for a particular tree. It contains index pages and data pages. The capacity of a leaf has to be 50% or more. For example: if n = 4, then the key for each node is between 2 to 4. The index page will be 4 + 1 = 5.

B+-tree Structure. A B+-tree is a generalization of a binary search tree (BST). The main difference is that nodes of a B+ tree will point to many children nodes rather than being limited to only two. Since the goal is to minimize disk accesses whenever we



and C children3.


B-tree :


In computer science, a B-tree is a tree data structure that keeps data sorted and allows searches, sequential access, insertions, and deletions in logarithmic time. The B-tree is a generalization of a binary search tree in that a node can have more than two children. (Comer 1979, p. 123) Unlike self-balancing binary search trees, the B-tree is



Q.3                  Employee


Emp Id Name Project Salary Dep. no.
MUL 1 Ramya PR 1 40000 1
MUL 2 Nupur PR 1 45000 2
SMU 1 Rajesh PR 3 20000 2
SMU 2 Vinay PR 2 50000 3
SMU 3 Anil PR 2 80000 2


Department :


Dept id D name Place
1 MIS Bangalore
2 HRM Bangalore
3 Finance Chennai
4 Research Bangalore






Using these tables answer the following question

a. If we want to see all the employees with salary between 40000 and 50000, which query can be used?

b. Select employee name from EMPLOYEE table, whose name starts with R

c. Explain aggregate functions and grouping in detail


Ans :  A select query retrieves data from one or more of the tables in your database, or other queries there, and displays the results in a datasheet. You can also use a select query to group data, and to calculate sums, averages, counts, and other types of totals. Query languages are computer languages used to make queries into databases and information systems.

Broadly, query languages can be classified




Q.4 What are the problems and failures that may encounter with respect to the transactions in a database management system? Give examples.


Ans :  A transaction is a logical unit of work, which involves may database operations. A transaction is a collection of operations that forms a single logical unit of work. A transaction is a unit of program executions that accesses and possibly updates various databases. Example: Banking system, Student database performs transactions.


Problems  with code :


1. SQL0805N Package package-name was not found


Possible reasons for these exceptions:



Q.5 Consider any database of your choice (may be simple banking database/forecasting database/project management database). Show the deduction of the tables in your database to the different types of normal forms



Ans : Choosing a proper database  :


The databases chosen is simple forecasting  database.


5 normal forms with respect to the database chosen


Definition: An entity is in the first normal form if it contains no repeating groups.

In 1NF relation the order of tuples (rows) and attributes (columns) does not matter.


order customer Contact person total
1 Rishabh manish 134.23
2 preeti rohan 521.24
3 rishabh manish 1042.42
4 rishabh manish 928.53







Q.6 Read the following case study thoroughly and answer the following questions:

Laxmi bank is one of the largest private sector banks of India. It has an extensive network of more than 200 branches. It offers banking services to retail as well as corporate clients. The bank faced a challenge in integrating multi-pronged database management system into a centralized system. The IT department of the bank also realized that the computing capabilities of its PCs and servers were not proportionately distributed among all its branches. Each branch had its database management system stored in a traditional way on the disk. The total cost of operating and maintaining the current IT infrastructure was very high and the fundamental shortcomings added to the costs. Moreover, there were also recurrent problems due to the malfunctioning of the currently operational database management system. Therefore, the bank’s top management decided to fix the problem and operationalise a robust database management system. The bank hired an external database technology consulting firm called AKPY Info systems Limited. AKPY divided the entire IT infrastructure of the bank around two verticals. The retail banking vertical and the corporate banking vertical. All the individual database servers from the individual branches were removed. The entire database system was made virtual such that the managers and the staff can access only the required information (related to retail banking or corporate banking) from the respective centralised data centers. There were only two such centralised data centers (one for retail banking and another for corporate banking) that were managed centrally. Staff and managers could access the information through their PCs and laptops. Centralised database management system complemented the security system by bringing in authentication through a unified ID management server. Managers and officers of the bank were able to process half a million transactions per month in real time after the new implementation. There were significant savings in the cost and also in the consumption of power. Now there were no problems with regard to imbalances in the load across various network servers. Due to centralised data management, top management could keep an eye on the functioning of various branches. Hence the cases of fraud and cheating reduced considerably. The bank managers could also process the loan applications in reduced time since the customer’s previous records could be accessed at the click of the button and approval from the higher authorities could be obtained in real time. Moreover the new system also brought in many applications that helped local managers in the decision making process.


a. List the uses of centralized data management

b. What steps Laxmi bank need to take if it were to change its centralised database system to a distributed database system in future?


Ans : a. uses of centralized data management :


From the above case study it is concluded that centralized data management has following advantages which has made it more useful than the older system :


1. Centralised database management system complements the security system by bringing in authentication through a unified ID management server


2  If data is stored and managed in various locations, as the volume of data increases, time and effort, as well as necessary devices to manage all the data must be increased accordingly. If data is gathered at one location and centrally managed,



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BK ID B1483



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q. 1 Highlight the reasons for measuring a software product. Also discuss the classification of process metrics measurement.


Ans : Reasons for measuring a software product :


The very nature of software engineering makes measurement a necessity, because more rigorous methods for production planning, monitoring, and control are needed, otherwise the amount of risk of software projects may become excessive, and software production may easily get out of industrial control. This would produce obvious damages to both software producers (e.g., higher costs, schedule slippage) and users (e.g., poor quality products, late product delivery, high prices). To be effective and make good use of the resources devoted to it, software measurement should address important development issues, i.e., it should be carried out within a precise goal of industrial interest. In this context, software measurement may serve several purposes, depending on the level of knowledge about a process of product.




Q.2 The Elite info systems has gone through three phases of application change management. They are informal, production promotion and software configuration management. In earlier informal phase the software engineer who developed the code has to place it into production. Due to poor documentation, there was difficulty in understanding and differentiating between the new code and existing code. Then elite info systems adopted change management process. The first ERP was implemented in the company. The company also segregated the duties of the software professional in the company based on the area of specialization and domain knowledge. According to this phase the developer who develops the code could not be held responsible for placing into production. Rather if the developer who wants to change the code has to submit the request through web based application where the changes are tracked and updated simultaneously. Automated workflow was established so that requests could be routed to the right channel for approval. The SCM was introduced into their development life cycle and this brought about a change in the software production life cycle. The SCM process gave segregation of duties which diminished the damage that could be caused by incompetence. Therefore in software configuration management phase, segregation of duties ensured security and reduced the risk. The various responsibilities of configuration migration, enhancement of quality control and analysis and coordination with the change management group. The tools used in the systems is application- change tracking and development tool. They used this software to govern and archive the various software versions. It stores all the code in the archiving version manager, which enhance quality and simplifies troubleshooting. The process adopted helps to improve the quality by managing change and predicting its effect. Consistent governing rules were enforced throughout the deployment process. It provide clear accountability which automated audits trails identified the required approvals at each phase. Early intervention results in more repeatable, faster deployments with fewer errors. Due to the deployment of this process, the three main goals of change management were achieved which are; development of quality, reduction by risk by helping ensure that processes are repeatable and predictable, and reduction of development costs. The following are the benefits of the process Increased developer productivity Improved IT service to internal clients Enhanced scalability Employee acceptance Therefore Elite Info Systems concludes that SCM is to be made as an integral part of their production process. The company regarded SCM not as a luxury, but as necessity.


a. Which process did Elite Info Systems deployed to improve the quality of change? Why?



Ans : Elite info system deployed Software configuration management process (SCM). This system was deployed because due to the deployment of this process, the three main goals of change management were achieved which are;

1. development of quality,

2. reduction by risk by helping ensure that processes are repeatable and predictable,

3. reduction of development costs.

In software engineering, software configuration management (SCM) is the task of tracking and controlling changes in the software, part of the larger cross-discipline field of configuration management.” SCM practices include revision control and the establishment of baselines. If something goes wrong, SCM can determine what was changed and who changed it. If a configuration is working well, SCM can determine





b. What is predictive reliability? How SCM will help in prediction?


Ans :  Predictive reliability :


Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment. Software Reliability is also an important factor affecting system reliability. It differs from hardware reliability in that it reflects the design perfection, rather than manufacturing perfection. The high complexity of software is the major contributing factor of Software Reliability problems. Software Reliability is not a function of time – although researchers have come up with models relating the two. The modelling technique for Software Reliability is reaching its prosperity, but before using the technique, we must carefully select the appropriate model that can best suit our case. Measurement in software is still in its infancy. No good quantitative methods have been developed to




Q. 3 With the program module diagram explain bottom-up integration. Give example


Ans :  Integration testing is the phase in software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. It occurs after unit testing phase and before system testing. In its simplest form, two units that have already been tested are combined into a component and the interface between them is tested. A component, in this sense, refers to an integrated aggregate of more than one unit.

Bottom Up is an approach to Integration Testing where bottom level units are tested first and upper level units step by step after that. This approach is taken when bottom up development approach is followed. Test Drivers are needed to simulate higher



Q.4 Mr. Shyam Kumar is the Assistant project manager in a software company. The company has bagged a contract for developing software for the credit card division of a private bank. Mr. Shyam Kumar and his team have decided to take up the requirement analysis phase of software engineering. What are the tasks or operations that Mr. Shyam Kumar and his team have to take up in order to complete the software requirement analysis phase?


Ans : software requirement analysis phase:


1. The members of a software development team must have a clear understanding of what the software product must do.


2. The first step is to perform a thorough analysis of the client’s current situation, careful to define the situation as precisely as possible.




Q.5 Consider your friend has opened a small IT hub or internet café in your city. List the steps that you implement the key practices that explain the infrastructure and performances of his hub.


Ans :  Steps explaining the infrastructure and performances of cafe / hub :


1. Formulate an idea of how you want to run your Internet café and write it down, the different amenities and services you want to offer and the audience you wish to cater to.


2. Research the feasibility of your plan in the area you wish to open your Internet café. Look specifically at the demand for an Internet café and competitors in the area and estimate how much money you will require as an initial investment.



Q.6 Write Short notes on


a. Prototyping


Ans : Software prototyping, refers to the activity of creating prototypes of software applications, i.e., incomplete versions of the software program being developed. It is an activity that can occur in software development and is comparable to prototyping as known from other fields, such as mechanical engineering or manufacturing.

A prototype typically simulates only a few aspects of, and may be completely different from, the final product.


Benefits of software prototype :


There are many advantages to using prototyping in software development – some tangible, some abstract.



b. Quality Control (QC)


Ans : Quality Control:


“Variation control may be equated to quality control. But how do we achieve quality control# Quality control involves the series of inspections, reviews, and tests used throughout the software process to ensure each work product meets the requirements placed upon it. Quality control includes a feedback loop to the process that created the work product. The combination of measurement and feedback allows us to tune the process when the work products created fail to meet their specifications. This approach views quality control as part of the manufacturing process. Quality control activities may be fully automated,


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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q. 1 Define the term ‘organisational transformation’. Discuss the various strategies to manage transformation in organizations.


Ans : organisational transformation:


Organisational Transformation is a term referring collectively to such activities as reengineering, redesigning and redefining business systems. The dominant enabling technology in transforming organization is information and technology. As business model change rapidly in the financial environment and mergers and acquisition change the face of the organization. So, organization continually need to

a. A flexible, effective and efficient organization.

b. A customer-centric approach to organizational activities

c. Recognition of current strengths to create a more

Q. 2 Describe Integrative Model for Planned Change.


Ans : Integrative Model for Planned Change:


Integrative Model of Planned Change was developed by Bullock and Batten (1985). It Describes both organisational states and change processes. The basis for this model is that an organisation exists in different states at different times.

  • Planned movement can occur from one state to another.
  • Understanding of the present state of the organisation and the processes of change required to move to another state is required.


Q. 3 The key purpose of communication of change is to ensure that the individuals understand what is going to happen and what is expected from them. Explain some other important needs for communicating change. Also explain the major methods and techniques for communicating change.


Ans : Needs of communication change :


1. Managing communication to change is a proactive approach, as it correctly assumes that communication breakdowns cause people to do things that hurt performance.” He then goes on to describe a relatively traditional mix of communication tactics which enable communicators to deal with the gap and implement the change.

2. Planning how change will happen is really

Q. 4 What do you mean by resistance to change? Discuss some of the reasons for individual (employee’s) resistance.


Ans :  Resistance to change:


Resistance to change is the act of opposing or struggling with modifications or transformations that alter the status quo in the workplace. Managing resistance to change is challenging. Resistance to change can be covert or overt, organized or individual. Employees can realize that they don’t like or want a change and resist publicly and verbally. Or, they can just feel uncomfortable and resist, sometimes unknowingly, through the actions they


Q. 5 List the types of change management strategies. Explain any two of them.


Answer : Strategies used in change management :


1. Empirical rational :


People are rational and will follow their self-interest — once it is revealed to them. Change is based on the communication of information and the proffering of incentives.


2. Normative reductive :

People are social beings and will adhere to cultural norms and values. Change is based on redefining and reinterpreting existing norms and values, and

Q. 6 Write short notes on the following:

a. Change agents

b. Kolb’s Learning Cycle

c. Organisational Learning


Ans : a. Change agents :


A Change Agent is someone who knows and understands the dynamics that facilitate or hinder change. Change Agents define, research, plan, build support, and partner with others to create change. They have the courage and the willingness to do what is best for the community.

Some characteristics of change agents are :


1.  Clear Vision :

As mentioned above, a “change agent” does not have to be

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