MIT401– Data Warehousing and Data Mining

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 4
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MIT401– Data Warehousing and Data Mining
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1633
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

1 Explain the Top-Down and Bottom-up Data Warehouse development Methodologies.

Answer: Data warehouse systems have gained popularity as companies from the most varied industries realize how useful these systems can be. A large number of these organizations, however, lack the experience and skills required to meet the challenges involved in data warehousing projects. In particular, a lack of a methodological approach prevents data warehousing projects from being carried out successfully. Generally, methodological approaches are created by closely studying similar experiences and minimizing the

 

 

 

 

2 Explain the Functionalities and advantages of Data Warehouses.

Answer: A common way of introducing data warehousing is to refer to the characteristics of a data warehouse.

  • Subject Oriented
  • Integrated
  • Nonvolatile
  • Time Variant

 

Subject Oriented: Data warehouses are designed to help you analyze data. For example, to learn more about your company’s sales data, you can build a warehouse that concentrates on sales. Using this warehouse, you can answer questions

 

 

 

3 Describe about Hyper Cube and Multicube.

 

Answer: Multidimensional databases can present their data to an application using two types of cubes: hypercubes and multicubes. In the hypercube model, as shown in the following illustration, all data appears logically as a single cube. All parts of the manifold represented by this hypercube have identical dimensionality.

 

In the multicube model, data is segmented into a set of smaller cubes, each of which is composed of a subset of the available dimensions, as shown in the following illustration:

Hypercubes and multicubes differ in terms of available metadata. In a hypercube, each dimension belongs to one cube only. A dimension is “owned” by the hypercube. In a multicube, a dimension can be part of multiple cubes. That is, dimensions are

 

 

 

 

4 List and explain the Strategies for data reduction.

 

Answer: Data reduction is the process of minimizing the amount of data that needs to be stored in a data storage environment. Data reduction can increase storage efficiency and reduce costs.

 

Strategies for data reduction:

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF EXISTING INFORMATION: First of all, we don’t want to reinvent the wheel. There’s a lot of existing information out there for community health coalitions to take advantage of. Know your community’s history! Has this

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 Describe K-means method for clustering. List its advantages and drawbacks.

 

Answer: k-means clustering is a method of vector quantization, originally from signal processing, that is popular for cluster analysis in data mining. k-means clustering aims to partition n observations into k clusters in which each observation belongs to the cluster with the nearest mean, serving as a prototype of the cluster. This results in a partitioning of the data space into Voronoi cells.

 

The problem is computationally difficult (NP-hard); however, there are efficient heuristic algorithms that are commonly employed and converge quickly to a local optimum. These are usually similar to the expectation-maximization algorithm

 

 

 

6 Describe about Multilevel Databases and Web Query Systems.

 

Answer: Multilevel Databases: The main idea behind this approach is that the lowest level of the database contains semi-structured information stored in various Web repositories, such as hypertext documents. At the higher level(s) meta data or generalizations are extracted from lower levels and organized in structured collections, i.e. relational or object oriented databases. For example, Han, et. al. use a multilayered database where each layer is obtained via generalization and transformation operations performed on the lower layers. Kholsa, et. al. propose the creation and maintenance of meta-databases at each information providing domain

 

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MH0054 – Finance, Economics and Planning in Healthcare Services

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5)MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDHSMN – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MH0054 – Finance, Economics and Planning in Healthcare

Services

BK ID B1215
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q.1 Give an account of incentives available to healthcare sector under the income tax act.  

 

Answer :  Healthcare sectors in India :

 

he healthcare industry in India is experiencing gradual transition from paper files to electronic mediums. The Indian healthcare assisted by IT market has been growing tremendously over the past few years. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 22.7 per cent during the period 2013-2015.The hospital and diagnostics centre in India received foreign direct investment (FDI) worth US$ 1,914.28 million, while drugs & pharmaceutical and medical & surgical appliances industry registered FDI worth US$ 11,318.32 million and US$ 653.45 million, respectively during April 2000 to June 2013, according to data provided by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)

 

 

 

 

Q.2 What do you mean by health economics? Discuss the role of economists in healthcare industry.

 

Answer: Meaning of health economics  :

 

Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behaviour in the production and consumption of health and health care. In broad terms, health economists study the functioning of health care systems and health-affecting behaviours such as smoking. Health economists evaluate multiple types of financial information: costs, charges and expenditures. Uncertainty is intrinsic to health, both in patient outcomes and financial concerns. The knowledge gap that exists between a physician and a patient creates a situation of distinct advantage for the physician, which is called asymmetric information. Externalities arise frequently when considering health and health care, notably in the context of infectious disease. For example, making an effort to avoid catching the common cold affects people other than the decision maker.

 

Explanation of role of economists in health care industry  :

 

4 roles for trained health economists

 

 

  1. 3 Discuss the importance of financial information in healthcare organisations.

 

Answer : Financial information :

 

Data such as credit card numbers, credit ratings, account balances, and other monetary facts about a person or organization that are used in billing, credit assessment, loan transactions, and other financial activities. Financial information must be processed in order for business to be conducted, but it must also be carefully handled by businesses in order to ensure security for customers and to avoid the litigation and bad publicity that can stem from negligent or improper use

 

importance of financial information in healthcare organizations  :

 

1.One of the many definitions of

 

Q.4 Explain different methods of evaluation of healthcare services.    

 

Answer :  Different methods :

 

  1. Types of Quality of Care Measures :
  2. Outcome Measures :
  3. Process Measures :
  4. Structure Measures:
  5. Comprehensiveness of Measures:

 

 

  1. Types of Quality of Care Measures :

 

Process measures assess whether a patient

 

Q.5 Define cost accounting. Explain the various categories of costs. 

 

Answer: Cost accounting :

 

Cost accounting is a process of collecting, analyzing, summarizing and evaluating various alternative courses of action. Its goal is to advise the management on the most appropriate course of action based on the cost efficiency and capability. Cost accounting provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current operations and plan for the future. Unlike the accounting systems that help in the preparation of financial reports periodically, the cost accounting systems and reports are not subject to rules and standards like the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.

 

Various categories of costs  :

 

1.Fixed Cost

 

 

Q.6 What is financial reporting? Explain the need for financial reporting.

 

Answer : Definition of financial reporting :

 

Financial reports are the documents and records you put together to track and review how much money your business is making (or not). The purpose of financial reporting is to deliver this information to the lenders and shareowners (the stakeholders) of your business. If someone else is supporting part of your business, financial reporting must be part of the essential contract between you and them. Your lenders and investors have the right to know if their money is being spent wisely and returning a profit.

 

Need for financial reporting :

 

 

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MH0053 – Hospital & Healthcare Information Management

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 /MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDHSMN – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MH0053 – Hospital & Healthcare Information

Management

BK ID B1214
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. Define HMIS. Discuss its benefits in detail.

Answer : Definitions of what constitutes a “health information system” abound and although there is no consensus around any specific formulation, it is universally accepted that health information is essential for health decision-making at all levels of the health pyramid. From the level of individual patient care, to the management of specific health programmes through to the policy level where strategic decisions are made information is an integral part of the health pyramid (4, 5, 6, 7). The health information system has been aptly described as “an integrated effort to collect, process, report and use health information and

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the steps involved in designing and implementation of Hospital Information System.

Answer : Steps in Developing a Health Management Information System

(1) Review the existing system

(2) Define the data needs of relevant units within the health system

(3) Determine the most appropriate and effective data flow

(4)Design the data collection and reporting tools

(5) Develop the procedures and

 

  1. Explain telemedicine. Discuss the current scenario of telemedicine in India.

Answer : India, with its diverse landmass and huge population, is an ideal setting for telemedicine. Telemedicine activities were started in 1999. The Indian Space Research Organization has been deploying a SATCOM-based telemedicine network across the country since that year. Various government agencies-Department of Information Technology and Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, state governments, premier medical and technical institutions of India-have taken initiatives with the aim to provide quality healthcare facilities to the rural and remote parts of the country. The Government of India has planned and implemented various national-level projects and also extended telemedicine services to South Asian and African countries. Efforts are taking place in the field of medical e-learning by establishing digital

 

  1. Describe the factors that have led to review the current health policy.

 

Answer : The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations. The main responsibility was to help anybody in need of medical assistance. The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by all 69 countries of the United Nations by 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health

 

 

  1. Explain the significance of health information systems in nursing education.

Answer : Health information system :

Health information systems refer to any system that captures, stores, manages or transmits information related to the health of individuals or the activities of organisations that work within the health sector. This definition incorporates things such as district level routine information systems, disease surveillance systems, and also includes laboratory information systems, hospital patient administration systems (PAS) and

 

 

  1. The Hospital management is at crossroads – the dilemma faced by them is whether they should automate the medical records department in the hospital or continue using the manual records storage system. With your knowledge about electronic medical records, how will you help them in taking the right decision in this regard?

 

Answer : Advantages of Electronic Medical Records

There are numerous advantages of EMR serving as the platform for patient care within a medical practice.

 

Advantages of EMR for the Patient – From the patient’s perspective the benefits of EMR include:

 

  • Improved diagnosis and treatment
  • Significantly fewer errors found within personal health records
  • Faster care and decision making responses from assigned medical professionals

 

 

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MH0052 – Hospital Organization, Operations and Planning

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5)  MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDHSMN – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MH0052 – Hospital Organization, Operations and Planning
BK ID B1213
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q.1 Define a hospital. Discuss the various functions of hospital.

 

Answer : Hospital :

 

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment.

Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organizations (for profit or non profit), health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Historically, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders. Today, hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses, whereas in the past, this work was usually performed by the

 

 

 

 

  1. 2. List the various committees in a hospital setting. Discuss the factors that affect the effectiveness of committees.

 

Answer : Listing the various committees :

 

  1. Medical Executive Committee
  2. Ethics Committee:
  3. The Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
  4. The Infection Control Committee.
  5. Safety Committee/ Employee Hospital waste management Health Committee:
  6. Budget/Finance and Audit Committee:

 

 

 

  1. Medical Executive Committee:

 

 

Q.3  Explain the process of material management in a hospital.

 

Answer:

 

Overview of material management  :

 

Materials management is an important issue for healthcare systems because it influences clinical and financial outcomes. Before selecting, adapting and implementing leading or optimized practices, a good understanding of processes and activities has to be developed. In real applications, the information flows and business strategies involved are different from hospital to hospital, depending on context, culture and available resources; it is therefore difficult to find a comprehensive and

exhaustive description of processes, even more so a clear formalization of them.

 

Processes and Explanation :

 

  1. Purchasing:

 

 

 

Q.4  Discuss in brief the planning, design and staffing of a billing department in a hospital.  

 

Answer :Brief outline of billing department:

 

The decision on how to bill, file insurance claims, document these claims, and finally to collect on these claims is one of the most important decisions a Hospitalist practice will make, second only to selecting the best physicians to practice as Hospitalists. Good billing services can make the difference between success and failure of your program.

 

 

Explanation of planning billing department :

 

Some hospitals have set up well-run Management Services Organizations (MSOs) or have retooled their billing departments to meet physician

 

 

Q.5  Discuss the managerial skills required to be possessed by a health service manager.

 

Answer : 3 categories of managerial skills :

 

A manager’s role is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated for being a manager. There are three basic skills :

 

  1. Management skills
  2. Communication skills
  3. Conceptual skills

 

Explanation :

 

Healthcare managers plan, coordinate

 

 

Q.6  Imagine that you are appointed as a consultant for setting up a Radiology and X-ray unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital. What are the planning considerations you have to keep in your mind before executing the task?  

 

Answer : Importance of Radiology and X-ray unit in a hospital  :

 

The imaging department within a hospital or as a stand-alone centre can be treated as a separate business as it is a big profit centre. Apart from providing routine and specialised diagnostic services with imaging technique for indoor, out-patients and walk-in patients it also provides therapeutic services like radio therapy, nuclear medicine as well as interventional radiography. This acts as a big source of revenue generation for a hospital or a stand-alone centre with high profitability .

 

 

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MH0051 – Health Administration

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5)  MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDHSMN – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MH0051 – Health Administration
BK ID B1212
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

1.Explain the types of epidemiological studies and list the uses of epidemiology.

Answer : Epidemiology is the study of diseases in large number of humans or other animals, in particular how, when and where they occur. Epidemiologists endeavour to determine what factors are related with diseases (risk factors), and what factors may protect people or animals against disease (protective factors). The science of epidemiology was first developed to discover and understand possible causes of contagious diseases like smallpox, typhoid and polio among humans. It has expanded to include the study of factors associated with non-transmissible diseases like cancer, and of poisonings caused by environmental agents.

Types of Epidemiological Studies (Observational and

 

 

2.Define health insurance. Explain the different types of health insurance policies in India.

Answer : Health insurance is a type of insurance coverage that covers the cost of an insured individual’s medical and surgical expenses. Depending on the type of health insurance coverage, either the insured pays costs out-of-pocket and is then reimbursed, or the insurer makes payments directly to the provider.

 

In health insurance terminology, the “provider” is a clinic, hospital, doctor, laboratory, health care practitioner, or pharmacy. The “insured” is the owner of the health insurance policy; the person with the health insurance coverage.

 

 

3.Define disaster management. Explain the steps in disaster management.

Answer : 8 Steps to disaster recovery planning

                                  

It’s been some time since I’ve delved in disaster recovery planning, so I thought I’d create this post as a short refresher on the planning process.  Every organization, whether small or large, should have a disaster recovery plan. Depending on the size, it may take some organizations several months to fully document an effective plan. In such cases, it’s important to understand the 8 steps to disaster recovery planning.

Step 1 in disaster recovery planning: organize the disaster

 

 

4.Discuss the occupational related legislations in India.

Answer : Occupation related legislations in India :

Occupational health Laws:

The Factories Act, 1948, the Mines Act, 1952,The Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986 are some of the laws, which contain provisions regulating the health of workers in an establishment. Whereas the Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 and the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 are compensatory in nature.

Health Provisions under the Factories Act, 1948:

The Factories Act, 1948 was enacted with the object of protecting workers from subjecting to unduly long hours of bodily strain or manual labour. It lays down that employees should work in healthy and sanitary conditions so far as the manufacturing will allow and that precautions should be taken for their safety and for the prevention of accidents. The Act defines a ‘worker’ as any person employed directly or through any agency (including a contractor

 

5.Discuss the impact of lifestyle diseases on healthcare industry and economy.

Answer : Answer : Impact of lifestyle diseases on economy

The diagnosis of a chronic disease like heart disease or diabetes has far reaching economic and social consequences on the individual, his family and the society.

 

The economic consequences are the direct and indirect costs incurred upon the individual over the course of the disease.Direct costs include cost of medicines, physician consultation charges, hospital admission charges, investigation charges and cost of medical durables like wheel chairs, wound care supplies or respirators especially when hospital stay becomes prolonged and expensive requiring a shift to home care.

 

  1. Discuss the government programs for nurturing newborns.

Answer : Listing the government programs  :

 

Nurturing Newborns

The data published in the third survey (2005-06) of National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 56.1% of ever married women aged 15-49 years are Anemic. The problem is more severe during pregnancy, with 57.8% of pregnant women (15-49 years) being anemic. A programme for prophylaxis and treatment of anemia has been under completion through

out the country since 1997-98. Under this programme all pregnant and lactating women are provided with one tablet (containing 100 mg of elemental iron and 0.5 mg of Folic

Acid) daily for 100 days. Those who have severe

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OM0013 – ADVANCED PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 3/SEM 5)MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 3)

PGDOMN (SEM 1)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME OM 0013 – ADVANCED PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
BK ID B1935
CREDITS AND MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1. Write short notes on:
  2. a) World class manufacturing concept:Manufacturing has evolved considerably since the advent of industrial revolution. In current global and competitive age, it is very important for organization to have manufacturing practice which is lean, efficient, cost-effective and flexible.

 

World class

 

 

  1. b) Job analysis method of improving productivity: A job analysis is a step-by-step specification of an employment position’s requirements, functions, and procedures. Just as a seed cannot blossom into a flower unless the ground is properly prepared, many human resource management (HRM) practices cannot blossom into competitive advantage unless grounded on an adequate job analysis.

 

Job analysis also plays an

 

 

 

c)Siddal’s classification of design approaches: Managers must make choices about how to group people together to perform their work. Five common approaches — functional, divisional, matrix, team, and networking—help managers determine departmental groupings (grouping of positions into departments). The five structures are basic organizational structures, which are then adapted to an organization’s needs. All five

 

 

  1. d) Expert opinion poll: The opinion poll methods aim at collecting opinion of those who are supposed to possess knowledge of the market e.g. sales representative, professional marketing experts and consultants. The opinion poll method include

 

Expert opinion

 

 

 

 

  1. 2. Differentiate between infinite and finite loading. Explain sequencing. Mention the rules of sequencing.

 

Answer:The concept of infinite loading is to take everything that is scheduled, and load it into the work center to an infinite level without taking available capacity into consideration. The problem with this approach is that work

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Write short notes on:

 

  1. a) Alfred Weber’s theory on industrial location:Alfred Weber, a German economist, attempted to analyse the factors that influence industrial location. Before Weber, another German economist Launhardt gave the simple principle of industrial location based on minimum transport cost. Weber followed

 

 

  1. b) Relationship between design capacity , system capacity and actual output: Capacity is the throughput or number of units a facility can hold, receive, store, or produce in a period of time. Design capacity is the theoretical maximum output of a system in a given period under ideal conditions.

 

 

 

 

  1. c) Aggregate planning process:Aggregate planning is an operational activity that does an aggregate plan for the production process, in advance of 2 to 18 months, to give an idea to management as to what quantity of materials and other resources are to be procured and when, so that the total cost of operations of the organization is kept to the minimum over that period.

 

The quantity of outsourcing,

 

 

  1. d) Approaches to updating MRP:Material requirement planning (MRP) is a computer-based information system designed to handle ordering and scheduling of dependent-demand inventories (e.g., raw materials, component parts, and subassemblies).Material requirement planning is as much a philosophy as it is a technique, and as

 

 

 

Q . 4. What is purchasing? Briefly explain the purchasing procedure.

 

Answer:Purchasing refers to a business or organization attempting to acquiring goods or services to accomplish the goals of its enterprise. Though there are several organizations that attempt to set standards in the purchasing process,

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Calculate the EOQ. Analyse if EOQ has helped ABC in managing inventory.

 

Answer:Calculation of EOQ: Economic order quantity (EOQ) is the order quantity of inventory that minimizes the total cost of inventory management.

 

situation that led to the use of the EOQ model:Ordering costs and carrying costs are quite opposite to each other. If we need to minimize carrying costs we have to place small order which increases the ordering costs. If we want minimize our ordering costs we have to place few orders in a year and this requires placing large orders which in turn increases the total carrying costs for the period.

 

We need to minimize the total inventory costs

 

 

 

 

  1. 6. Write short notes:

 

  1. a) Plan-Do-Check-Action(PDCA) cycle: PDCA (plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Shewhart cycle,

 

 

  1. b) Quality circles: A quality circle is a group of workers who do the same or similar work, who meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems. Normally small in size, the group is usually led by a supervisor or manager and presents its solutions to management; where possible, workers implement the

 

 

  1. c) Objectives of JIT: Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing is a process by which companies don’t keep lots of excess inventory; instead, they manufacture a product as an order comes in. It is a management philosophy of continuous and forced problem solving.

 

The objective of JIT manufacturing system is to:

 

  • Eliminate waste that is, minimise the amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and worker’s time, which adds a

 

 

  1. d) Maintenance management system: Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) is also known as computerized maintenance management information system (CMMIS).

 

A CMMS software package maintains a computer database of information about an organization’s maintenance operations, i.e. CMMIS – computerized maintenance management information system. This information is intended to help maintenance workers do their jobs more effectively (for example, determining which machines require maintenance and which storerooms contain the spare parts they need) and to help

 

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OM0012 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 3/SEM 5)MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 3)

PGDOMN (SEM 1)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME OM0012 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
BK ID B1542
CREDITS AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1. How is supply chain performance improved by expanding the scope of strategic fit?

 

Answer:A company’s competitive strategy clearly spells out the set of customer needs that it seeks to satisfy through its products and services having a defined set of attributes.

 

The supply chain design or supply chain strategy must be in alignment with competitive strategy. A supply chain design can be taken up only after the competitive strategy is finalised and a supply chain needs to be redesigned or modified whenever there is a change in competitive strategy.

 

Chopra and Meindl use the concept of strategy to refer to what each function will try to do particularly well. They indicate that product strategy specifies  the portfolio of products that will be offered for sale by the company and

 

 

 

  1. 2. Write short notes on

 

  1. a) Network optimization model:Many critical infrastructures can be represented by a network of interconnected nodes and links. Mathematically sound nonlinear optimization techniques can then be applied to these networks to understand their behavior under normal and disrupted situations. Network optimization models are particularly useful for evaluating transportation system disruption effects on system capacity and the effectiveness of measures to reduce those impacts.

 

 

 

  1. b) Interactive approach of routing and scheduling in transportation:The Routing department provides computerized routing of buses to provide safe, effective, and efficient student transportation. The department assigns buses, safe bus stops, and bus routes. It maintains the database for transportation routes and prepares and maintains route schedules for all bus drivers, transportation district managers, and eligible schools.

 

 

 

  1. c) Strategic purchasing:Strategic purchasing is a methodology used in many businesses to realize the greatest amount of benefit to the company while still effectively managing the costs associated with the acquisition of raw materials and operational components. As opposed to tactical purchasing, which tends to see the purchasing process as somewhat distanced from other functions within the corporate structure

 

 

 

  1. d) Push-pull supply chain:The business terms push and pull originated in logistics and supply chain management, but are also widely used in marketing. Wal-Mart is an example of a company that uses the push vs. pull strategy. A push–pull system in business describes the movement of a product or information between two subjects. On markets the consumers usually “pull” the goods or

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. What is risk pooling? Why is it important in supply chain management? List the four types of risk pooling.

 

Answer:A risk pool is one of the forms of risk management mostly practiced by insurance companies. Under this system, insurance companies come together to form a pool, which can provide protection to insurance companies against catastrophic risks such as floods, earthquakes etc. The term is also used to

 

 

 

  1. 4. Describe the framework of Supply Chain Quality Management (SCQM) .

 

Answer:The framework integrates both vision- and gap-driven change approaches to evaluate not only the implementation gaps but also their potential countermeasures. Based on literature review, drivers of supply chain quality are identified. They are: supply chain competence, critical success factors (CSF), strategic components, and SCQ practices/activities/programmes. Based on SCQM literature, five survey items are also presented in this study for each drive. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. What are results of bullwhip effect in supply chain management? Which are the ways of reducing the bullwhip effect in supply chain?

 

Answer:The bullwhip effect is an observed phenomenon in forecast-driven distribution channels. It refers to a trend of larger and larger swings in inventory in response to changes in customer demand, as one looks at firms further back in the supply chain for a product. The concept first appeared in Jay Forrester’s Industrial Dynamics (1961) and thus it is also known as the Forrester effect. Since the oscillating demand magnification upstream of a supply chain is reminiscent of a cracking whip, it became known as the

 

 

 

  1. 6. Write short notes on

 

  1. a) Distributor integration: Owners are becoming increasingly aware of the building automation options available to them. Many now know they are no longer “locked in” to one manufacturer. Building engineers are looking for a resource with expertise from multiple manufacturers to provide them with integration solutions to network multiple buildings,

 

 

 

 

  1. b) E-Informing:Academic and public libraries have long played an important role in society by managing, disseminating and preserving government information, making it available to researchers, policy makers and the public. With the shift to “digital government,” in which the government delivers information and services to the public directly through online channels, the role of libraries is changing, leading to new challenges

 

 

 

  1. c) Hedge risk mitigation strategy for controllable risks: The aim of hedging is to mitigate the impact of non-controllable risks on the performance of an entity. Common risks are foreign exchange risk, interest rate risk, equity price risk, commodity price risk and credit risk.

 

 

 

  1. d) Framework for IT integrated SCM: Integration of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and marketing decision should be the prime concern of any profit maximizing firm. Supply chain actions, should always be aligned with business strategy of the firm that include upstream and downstream activities in order to facilitate the integration of the SCM with marketing decisions. Many research constructs and best practices within SCM and marketing seems to be converging. This paper provides a framework for

 

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