SUBJECT :FOREIGN EXCHANGE MANAGEMENT

 

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                 Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case Study Project

Total Marks: 80

 

 

SUBJECT :FOREIGN EXCHANGE MANAGEMENT

 

  1. B.: 1)Attempt any Four Questions

2)All questions carries equal marks.

 

 

 

 

Case 1

 

(10 Marks)

 

 

 

Mr Oak pays US $ 2000 to buy a December 103 Call option on a US $ 1,00,000. US Treasury Bond at anexercise price of US $ 103. If the price rises above US $ 103, Mr Oak will gain from the difference and ifthe price falls below US $ 103, the maximum amount that Mr Oak may lose is the amount of Premium paid.

 

 

Question. 1. Explain the term ‘Speculation’?

 

Answer:Speculation is the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from fluctuations in the market value of a tradable good such as a financial instrument, rather than attempting to profit from the underlying financial attributes embodied in the instrument such as capital gains, interest, or dividends. Many speculators pay little attention to the fundamental value of a security and instead focus purely on price movements. Speculation can in principle involve any tradable good or financial instrument. Speculators are particularly common in the markets for stocks, bonds, commodity futures, currencies, fine art, collectibles, real estate, and derivatives.

 

Speculators play one of four primary roles in financial markets, along with hedgers who engage in transactions to offset some other pre-existing risk, arbitrageurs who seek to profit from situations where fungible instruments trade at different prices in different market segments, and investors who seek profit through long-term ownership of an

 

 

 

Question.2. Define Risk Management in detail?

 

Answer:Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate eventsor to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risk management’s objective is to assure uncertainty does not deflect the endeavor from the business goals.

 

Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project failures (at any phase in design, development, production, or sustainment life-cycles), legal liabilities, credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters, deliberate attack from an adversary, or events of uncertain or unpredictable root-cause. There are two types of events i.e. negative events can be classified as risks while positive events are classified

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Define derivatives in detail?

 

Answer:A derivative is a security with a price that is dependent upon or derived from one or more underlying assets. The derivative itself is a contract between two or more parties based upon the asset or assets. Its value is determined by fluctuations in the underlying asset. The most common underlying assets include stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, interest rates and market indexes.

 

Derivatives either be traded over-the-counter (OTC) or on an exchange. OTC derivatives constitute the greater proportion of derivatives in existence and are unregulated, whereas derivatives traded on exchanges are standardized. OTC derivatives generally have greater risk for the counterparty than do standardized derivatives.

 

 

 

 

Question.4. Suggest Mr Oak to hedge the above transaction position?

 

Answer:Mr Oak pays US $ 2000 to buy a December 103 Call option on a US $ 1,00,000. US Treasury Bond at an exercise price of US $ 103. If the price rises above US $ 103, Mr Oak will gain from the difference and if the price falls below US $ 103, the maximum amount that Mr Oak may lose is the amount of Premium paid. They should prefer hedge.

 

A hedge is an investment position intended to offset

 

 

 

 

 

Case 2

 

(10 Marks)

 

Suppose United States dollar is relatively stable while the Indian rupee is suffering from sudden inflationarypressures. As the Indian Rupee buys less in the domestic economy. Indian and their banking institutionsseek the safe haven of the United States Dollars to maintain the purchasing power of their liquid resources.The demand for US dollars created by Indian‘s buying them with Indian Rupees makes the US dollars morevaluable in terms of the rupees and drives up the exchange rate. The United States Dollars commands moreRupees in an exchange of currency.

 

 

Question. 1.Define the meaning of Foreign Exchange?

 

Answer:Foreign exchange is the exchange of one currency for another or the conversion of one currency into another currency.

 

Foreign exchange also refers to the global market where currencies are traded virtually around the clock. The largest trading centers are London, New York, Singapore and Tokyo. The term foreign exchange is usually abbreviated as “forex” and occasionally as “FX.”

 

Foreign exchange transactions encompass everything

 

 

 

 

Question. 2. What are the Exchange rate risks?

 

Answer:In the present era of increasing globalization and heightened currency volatility, changes in exchange rates have a substantial influence on companies’ operations and profitability. Exchange rate volatility affects not just multinationals and large corporations, but small and medium-sized enterprises as well, even those who only operate in their home country. While understanding and managing exchange rate risk is a subject of

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. What are the factors influencing exchange rate risks?

 

Answer:Foreign Exchange rate (ForEx rate) is one of the most important means through which a country’s relative level of economic health is determined. A country’s foreign exchange rate provides a window to its economic stability, which is why it is constantly watched and analyzed. If you are thinking of sending or receiving money from overseas, you need to keep a keen eye on the currency exchange rates.

 

 

 

 

Question. 4. Comment ‘The relationship between currencies is not always stable and therefore creates exchange raterisk’.

 

Answer:An exchange rate is the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another. In other words, it is the value of another country’s currency compared to that of your own. If you are traveling to another country, you need to “buy” the local currency. Just like the price of any asset, the exchange rate is the price at which you can buy that currency. If you are traveling to Egypt, for example, and the exchange rate for U.S. dollars is 1:5.5 Egyptian pounds, this means that for every U.S. dollar, you can buy five and a half Egyptian pounds. Theoretically, identical assets should sell at the same price in different countries, because the exchange rate must maintain the inherent value of one currency against the other.

 

 

 

 

 

Case 3

 

(10 Marks)

In order to operate successfully, business communities need computer systems that can accurately record andsummarize their business transactions. This type of information technology is called a Business InformativeSystem. Business Information Technology or Systems have become an essential component of everybusiness organization. It would be very difficult to successfully run a business without some type ofinformation system.

 

Question. 1. How Business Information System support any business?

 

Answer:An information system (IS) is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.

 

A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.

 

Information system is an academic study of systems with

 

 

 

Question. 2. Explain the components of Business Information System?

 

Answer:There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, learning management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Distinguish between computer hardware and software?

 

Answer:Computer hardware is any physical device used in or with your machine, whereas software is a collection of code installed onto your computer’s hard drive. For example, the computer monitor you are using to read this text and the mouse you are using to navigate this web page is computer hardware. The Internet browser that allowed you to visit this page and the operating system that the browser is running on is considered software.

 

All software utilizes at least one hardware device to operate. For example, a video game, which is software, uses the computer processor (CPU), memory (RAM), hard drive, and video card to run. Word processing software uses the computer processor, memory, and hard drive to create and save documents.

 

In a computer, hardware is what makes a

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question. 4. Explain the role and responsibilities of Information Technology Professionals.

 

 

Answer:The IT security world has witnessed huge demand in the recent years and this transition is majorly due to the global acknowledgment for the need for IT security. As the world has adopted the IT world as a necessary belonging, the threats surrounding the IT world too are increasing. This led to IT security strategies that can resolve IT problems and control threats occurring in the technology field. The IT security professionals are handed with responsibility of protecting the IT world from rising threats and issues. Let’s have a look at the job of IT

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case 4

 

(10 Marks)

 

 

Question. 1. The primary goal of any national payment system is to enable the circulation of money in its economy. It isrecognized world wide that an efficient and secure payment system is an enabler of economic activity. Morerecently, the proliferation of electronic payment mechanisms, the increase in the number of players in thefinancial arena and the payment crises in quite a few countries and regions in the 1990’s have focusedattention on public policy issues related to the organization and operation of payment systems.

 

Answer:

 

 

Question. 1. What is payment system?

 

Answer:A payment system is any system used to settle financial transactions through the transfer of monetary value, and includes the institutions, instruments, people, rules, procedures, standards, and technologies that make such an exchange possible. A common type of payment system is the operational network that links bank accounts and provides for monetary exchange using bank deposits.

 

What makes a payment system a system is the use of cash-substitutes; traditional payment systems are negotiable instruments such as drafts (e.g., checks) and documentary credits such as letters of credit. With the advent of computers and

 

 

 

 

Question. 2. Explain components of a payment system?

 

Answer:The payment and settlement system consists of the following components:

 

  • Banks providing financial intermediation
  • A legal and statutory framework
  • Rules, regulations and agreements
  • Various payments instruments and payment streams.
  • Payment and settlement transactions.

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Explain the importance of payment system?

 

Answer:Payment systems are a vital part of the financial infrastructure of a country. In Malaysia, the large value payment system, RENTAS, which is operated by the Malaysian Electronic Clearing Corporation Sdn. Bhd. (MyClear), a payment subsidiary owned by Bank Negara Malaysia, enables the transfer and settlement of high-value interbank payments and securities. Its failure could contribute to systemic crisis and transmit financial shocks to the financial system. The efficient functioning of RENTAS allows transactions to be completed safely and in a timely manner contributing to overall economic performance.

 

 

 

 

Question. 4. Explain the evolution of payment systems in various stages?

 

Answer:Payment systems refer to the set of rules, procedures, and mechanisms for transferring money between two or more financial institutions and their customers. Efficient, secure and reliable payments and settlements systems reduce the transactions costs and are essential for the effective implementation of monetary policy and smooth functioning of money and capital markets.

 

The principal components of a payment system

 

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SUBJECT :BANKING MANAGEMENT

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                 Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case Study Project

Total Marks: 80

 

 

SUBJECT :BANKING MANAGEMENT

 

  1. B.: 1)Attempt any Four Questions

2)All questions carries equal marks.

 

 

 

 

Case 1

 

ICICI Centralizes Applications

 

(10 Marks)

 

ICICI centralizes applications for ‘anywhere’ banking

 

Question.1. What was the strategy adopted by the ICICI Bank for Development of Banking ? How automation helps the Banking Services?

 

Answer:ICICI Bank is India’s largest private sector bank with total assets of Rs. 6,461.29 billion (US$ 103 billion) at March 31, 2015 and profit after tax Rs. 111.75 billion (US$ 1,788 million) for the year ended March 31, 2015. ICICI Bank currently has a network of 4,070 Branches and 13,269 ATM’s across India.

 

ICICI Bank’s Business Objectives For Digital Space –

 

ICICI Bank—an institution has projected itself as a first-mover on many fronts—the changing banking landscape, where digital delivery of services is becoming more the norm than a nice thing to do, and has always maintained an aggressive digital strategy realizing the potential. It’s business objectives for digital marketing can be summarized as below –

 

 

 

 

Question. 2. Cost factor has become important in banking services.

 

Answer:The 21st century will bring about an all-embracing convergence of computing, communications, information and knowledge. This will radically change the way we live, work, and think. The growth of high speed networks, coupled with the falling cost of computing power, is making possible applications undreamed of in the past. Voice, data, images, and video may now be transferred around the world in micro-seconds. This explosion of technology is changing the banking industry from paper and branch banks to’ digitized and networked banking services. It has already changed the internal accounting and management systems of banks. It is now fundamentally changing the delivery systems banks use to interact with their customers. All over the world, banks are still struggling to find a technological

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Give your comments. Lessons learned from the above case study.

 

Answer:ICICI Bank provides banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers in areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital, asset management and information technology.

 

The need – Being a financial company with countrywide operations, it felt the need to centralize its applications to reach all its partners and customers. It needed to connect various ICICI offices, banks, branches and over 1,000 ATMs to make its services available across the country.

 

The solution – After a detailed study of

 

 


 

 

 

Case 2

 

e-Age Banking in Baharain

 

(10 Marks)

 

Question. 1. What were the requirements of bank?

 

Answer:The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world’s central banks, that sets the minimum fraction of customer deposits and notes that each commercial bank must hold as reserves (rather than lend out). These required reserves are normally in the form of deposits made with a central bank, or cash stored physically in the bank vault (vault cash).

 

The required reserve ratio is sometimes used as a tool in monetary policy, influencing the country’s borrowing and interest rates by changing the amount of funds available for banks to make loans with. Western central banks rarely alter the

 

 

 

 

Question.2. What is the message from the above case study?

 

Answer:When a leading bank in Bahrain went shopping for a comprehensive banking solution, it chose CMC’s TC/4.

 

Using CMC’s state-of-the-art total banking solution, a leading bank in Bahrain is providing its customers the full range of e-age value-added banking services via the internet, mobile phones and ATMs. TC/4 has given the bank a technological edge over the competition and streamlined its operations across all branches.

 

Client: A leading bank in Bahrain providing retail and commercial banking services. It has several branches and ATMs in Bahrain and operates an

 

 

 

Question. 3. How customers can attracted by improving services of the bank?

 

Answer:While Banks are getting more and more pressure from customer’s increasing demand, highly competitive market and strict regulations – in the current environment, understanding customer behavior, attitudes and requirements is more vital than ever for banks’ strategic thinking, operational planning and day-to-day customer treatment, according to Ernst & Young.

 

What Banks can do?

 

 

 

 

 

Case 3

 

Financial Risk Management at Union Bank of Switzerland

 

(10 Marks)

 

 

Question. 1. What do you understand by Financial Risk ?

 

Answer:Financial risk is an umbrella term for multiple types of risk associated with financing, including financial transactions that include company loans in risk of default.Risk is a term often used to imply downside risk, meaning the uncertainty of a return and the potential for financial loss.

 

A science has evolved around managing market and financial risk under the general title of modern portfolio theory initiated by Dr. Harry Markowitz in 1952 with his article, “Portfolio Selection”. In modern portfolio theory, the variance (or standard deviation) of a portfolio is used as the definition of risk.

 

 

 

 

Question. 2. How banks can tackle the risk in their business?

 

Answer:Accepting the risk is a business decision that is reflective on the level of “acceptable risk level,” or the willingness for organization to assume the risk. This does not mean that an organization that does not know their risks can accept an unknown. Thus as noted above, we have already determined the level of risk and we are now determining the best course of action.

 

Many times I have briefed the CIO and executive

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Is real estate management a risky sector in banking?

 

Answer:Real estate markets in most countries are not as organized or efficient as markets for other, more liquid investment instruments. Individual properties are unique to themselves and not directly interchangeable, which presents a major challenge to an investor seeking to evaluate prices and investment opportunities. For this reason, locating properties in which to invest can involve substantial work and competition among investors

 

 

 

 

Question. 4. What is the message of the above case study?

 

Answer:UBS continued to grow by acquisitions in the 1950s. By 1962, it had 81 branches. In 1967 it opened a full-service office in London. During the 1970s, UBS established several securities underwriting subsidiaries abroad. But the firm’s UK brokerage business was hit hard by the 1987 US stock market crash. Over the next two years, losses continued, prompting an overhaul of the London operations. Then the bank’s US operations were badly affected by the collapse of the junk bond market in 1990. Notwithstanding these setbacks, UBS set up offices in Paris, Singapore, and Hong Kong and took over Chase Manhattan’s (now J.P. Morgan Chase) New York money management unit in 1991. The firm also continued to expand

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case 4

 

END TO END RETAIL BANKING SOLUTIONS FOR A JAPANESE BANK

 

(10 Marks)

 

Question. 1. What was the plan of Japanese Bank for Customers

 

Answer:Customer Centric Front-end: The entire front-end has been made customer-centric. The retail customer, irrespective of transaction or channel now has just one identifier, which enables access to all delivery channels. The browser based front-shows the customer’s entire relationship with the bank in a summary screen. This shows the customer’s total holdings at the moment in the bank, including DDA, TDA, loans, mutual funds etc., at a level consolidated by the above account types. This can be drilled down multiple levels for a detailed view of the customer relationship.

 

  • Support for the entire spectrum of delivery channels
  • Complete support for all delivery channels

 

 

 

 

Question. 2. How customers were with the solution?

 

Answer:Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to managing a company’s interaction with current and future customers. The CRM approach tries to analyze data about customers’ history with a company, in order to better improve business relationships with customers, specifically focusing on retaining customers, in order to drive sales growth. One important aspect of the CRM approach is the systems of CRM that compile information from a range of different channels, including a company’s website, telephone, email, live chat, marketing materials, social media, and more. Through the CRM approach and the systems used to facilitate CRM, businesses learn more about their target

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Was there any cost impact?

 

Answer:Market impact cost is a measure of market liquidity that reflects the cost faced by a trader of an index or security. The market impact cost is measured in the chosen numeraire of the market, and is how much additionally a trader must pay over the initial price due to market slippage, i.e. the cost incurred because the transaction itself changed the price of the asset. Market impact costs are a type of transaction costs.

 

Example:For a stock to qualify for possible inclusion into the Nifty, it has to have a market impact cost of below 0.75% when doing Nifty trades of half a crore rupees. The market impact cost on a trade of Rs 0.3 million of the full Nifty is about 0.05%. This

 

 

 

 

 

Question. 4. Important lessons from the above case study?

 

Answer:The retail banking transformation is a new challenge in achieving high business performance. In this dynamic environment, banks are at risk of being unable to meet future business needs due to the complexity driven by outdated technology platforms, inappropriate procedures and duplicate business processes.

 

Complex Network Interfaces: Interfaces with Zengin (interbank remittance network internal to Japan), RTGS systems, Bank of Japan Net (BoJNet

 

 

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Software Management

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PART A (80 Marks)

 

CASE 1

ACE is a premier real estate consultancy involved in real estate dealingsfor top notch companies in the country. As ACE is growing, the supportstaff at ACE offices is growing in numbers. The management at ACErealises the need for dedicated collaboration across its different officesspread across the country. The human resource department at ACE worksin a distributed fashion. The Head Office of ACE has the core HR team andthe regional offices have supporting HR staff along with supporting stafflike site supervisors, accountants, legal executives and customer support.In all, there are 500 ACE employees spread across the country withalmost 1500 telephone lines connecting them. The existing emailingsystem facilitates communication and collaboration partially. Keeping inconsideration the case above, the management at ACE decides to get asoftware application developed to cater to the collaboration requirementof ACE.ACE head office has an in-house technical team who have been taking care of the IT requirements till now. This team is known as the ‘InternalSystem’ in ACE. Mr. Sharma, one of the Vice Presidents in SeniorManagement chose Ms. Mary D’Souza from the Internal System teamasthe project manager for this assignment. Ms. Mary needs to co-ordinatewith all the regional offices in the country to develop the software. Shewould need inputs from all offices to decide the functionalities of thisapplication. This application would integrate the existing email facility andensure that there are many more features which support the collaborationneeds of the organisation.Mr. Sharma briefs Ms.Mary of the above mentioned problem statementand the possible solution. Followed by this, Ms.Mary is instructed to dothe needful.

 

Based on the above case, answer the following questions:

  1. Prepare a business case
  2. Draft the feasibility report
  3. Identify the stake holders involved in this project with their suitablerole and responsibilities
  4. Under what circumstances can Ms.Mary outsource this work?
  5. Identify few known quality principles/policies that can be implementedwhile developing this project.

 

 

 

 

 

CASE 2

Rakesh has been just assigned as the project manager to developaccounting software for a firm based in a country which has been hostile for quite for sometime. Rakesh has been deployed in the customer’s country with an initial team consisting of three members. Rakesh meetsthe customer Mr. David and starts the requirement gathering process. Mr.David recommends a team of 10 people from his company to facilitate therequirements gathering process. Rakesh with his three team membersconducts the requirements gathering phase and comes with a roughestimate of the development time in weeks for the five modules that havebeen identified.

 

Development Time (in Person Weeks)

 

Module Name Pessimistic Optimistic Most Likely
A 7 3 4
B 4 2 3
C 8 6 7
D 15 5 13
E 20 1 16

 

Pretty soon Rakesh realises that he will need a bigger team to completethe project on time. Rakesh raises this human resource requirement tohis head office in India. Head office suggests Rakesh that he needs towork with human resources from the local country. Head office approveshim to go ahead with hiring in the local country.

Based on the above data/information, do the following:

  1. Calculate the weighted average development time for each module
  2. Standard deviation for each module
  3. Calculate the standard deviation for the complete project and theestimated time frame for completion?
  4. Assuming Rakesh has to finish this project 20 weeks. What is the teamstrength he would need to do it?
  5. What are the possible issues Rakesh may face while hiring HumanResources from the local country?

 

 

 

 

 

Case Study 3

 

 

Stefan has been working on a computer simulation project to forecastabout the cyclones and storms. This project also involves understandingthe impacts of these natural calamities and predicting the estimateddamage to human lives and property. This project is sponsored jointly by10 governments across the world.Stefan is the project manager with a team of 20 people and their profilesare listed below.

 

 

  

Designation Number of People Description
Programmers 12 Programming the modulesbased on the designssupplied by the teamleaders.
Team leaders 3 Team leaders design thesoftware modules and givethem to the programmersfor programming. Teamleaders are remotely basedin the geographicallocations which are cycloneand storm prone. They workclosely with the subjectmatter experts who providethe technical details aboutnatural calamities. Teamleaders travel tocyclone/storm hit areas andassist the subject matterexperts.
Subject Matter Experts 3 Subject Matter Experts arepeople with specializedknowledge and skills relatedto storms and cyclones.These people keep ontravelling to various locations for studies andprovide the developmentteam with necessary dataand details.
Graphical Designers 1 These people design theGraphical User Interface forthe software modulesdeveloped by theprogrammers.
Accountant 1 Accountant keeps track ofthe project budgeting, costsand expenditures.

 

While the programmers are co-located in a relatively safe environment, the teamleaders and the subject matter experts travel in a hostile environment.

 

Based on the scenario described above, perform the following:

 

 

  1. Based on assumptions, identify minimum of five important risks involved inthe project
  2. Perform a qualitative risk analysis based on the answer for Q. 1 above
  3. Perform a quantitative risk analysis based on Q.1 and Q. 2 above. Assumenumerical value ranges for probability and impact (Exposure) of risks
  4. Prepare a sample risk register for such a project
  5. List out three positive risks in such a project

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASE 4

 

 

New Boston School is a reputed school in the city and has been inexistence since last 75 years. With IT affecting all domains of life, theschool has identified the need of a web based school portal to connect theschool, students and parents/guardians. This will help the school maintaina transparency between its staff, students and parents. The business casehas been drafted and approved. D-Smart Infotech, a local softwaredevelopment firm, has been awarded this project and Lillie has beenidentified as the project manager for this project from D-Smart Infotech.Lillie has completed the feasibility study for this project and D-SmartInfotech has decided to go ahead with the project.

The project deadline is very crucial and ends after one year of awardingthe project. Since D-Smart Infotech is running short of human resources,it plans to outsource this project again to a third party vendor. Since Lilliehas been assigned as the project manager, she has to identify, select andnegotiate a vendor for this assignment. The school has awarded thisproject to D-Smart Infotech on the firm condition that the project shouldbe completed within a year.

 

Based on the above scenario, answer the following:

  1. Should a third party vendor be selected to do this software project? Ifyes, then what are the legal formalities D-Smart Infotech need tocomplete with New Boston School and the selected vendor?
  2. What are the high level risks associated in such a project?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART B (80 Marks) (Any four)

 

  1. 1. You have been appointed a Project manager for a major software products company. Your job is to manage the development of the next generation version of its widely used word-processing software. Because new revenue must be generated, tight deadlines have been established and announced. What team structure would you choose and why? What software process model(s) would you choose and why?
  2. You have been asked to develop a small application that analyzes each course offered by a university and reports the average grade obtained in thecourse (for a given term). White a statement of scope that bounds thisproblem.
  3. Use the COCOMO II Model I to estimate the effort required to buildsoftware for a simple ATM that produces 12 screens, 10 reports, and willrequire approximately 80 software components, Assume average complexity and average developer/environment maturity. Use the application composition model with object points.
  4. Develop a spreadsheet model that implements one or two of the estimation techniques described in this chapter. Alternatively, a acquire one or more on-line models for software project estimation from web-based sources.
  5. A system has 12 external inputs, 24 external outputs, fields 30 different external queries, manages 4 internal logical files, and interfaces with 6 different legacy systems (6 EIFs). All of these data are of average complexity, and the overall system is relatively simple. Compute FP for the system.
  6. Give at least three examples in which black-box testing might give the impression that everything’s OK, while white vox tests might uncover an error. Give at least three examples in which white-box testing might give the impression that “everything’s OK,” while black-box tests might uncover an error.

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Human Resource Management

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PART – A (80 Marks)

 

Q.1. Elaborate on the system of HR Planning. Outline the steps to be undertaken by organizations to effectively engage in HR planning.
Q.2. Discuss the various ways in which the commitment of errors in performance appraisal can be minimized.
Q.3. The nature and scope of the Human Resource Management Systems keeps on evolving with the changes in the external and internal environments of organizations. Elaborate on the same.    {Marks: 20}
Q.4. what are some of the traditional and current sources of recruitment used by organizations? What are their pros and cons?
Q.5. How does HRM enable organizations to adapt to the dynamic changes in the environment? Illustrate with examples.
Q.6. As an HR executive, how would you go about devising HRIS for a mid – sized organization?
Q 7. Discuss the various principles and purposes of promotion and types and purpose of transfers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART – B (80 Marks)

 

Case – 1

The reality of software development is a huge company like Microsoft-it employs more than 48,000 people- is that a substantial portion of your work involves days of boredom punctuated byhours of tedium. You basically spend your time in an isolated office writing code and sitting inmeetings during which you participate in looking for and evaluating hundreds of current employeesand potential employees. Microsoft has no problem in finding and retaining software programmers.Their programmers work for very long hours and obsess on the goal of shipping product.

From the day new employees begin at Microsoft, they know they are special. New hires allhave one thing in common-they are smart. The company prides itself on putting all recruits through agrueling “interviewing loop”, during which they confront a barrage (an overwhelming number ofquestions or complaints) of brain-teasers by future colleagues to see how well they think. Only thebest and the brightest survive to become employees. The company does this because Microsoftiestruly believe that their company is special. For example, it has high tolerance for non-conformity,would you believe that one software tester comes to work every day dressed in extravagant Victorianoutfits? . But the underlying theme that unites Microsofties is the belief that the firm has a manifestdestiny to change the world.

The least important decision as programmer can have a large importance which it can affect anew release that might be used by 50 million people. Microsoft employees are famous for putting inlong hours. One program Manager said “In my First Five Years, I was the Microsoft stereotype.

I lived on caffeine and vending-machine hamburgers and free beer and 20-hour work-days……Ihad no life…..I considered everything outside the building as a necessary evil”. More recently thingshave changed. There are still a number of people who put in 80-hour weeks, but 60 and 70 hourweeks are more typical and some even are doing their jobs in only 40 hours.

No discussion of the employee life at Microsoft would be complete without mentioning thecompany’s lucrative stock option program. Microsoft created more millionaire employees, faster,than any company in American history-more than 10,000 by the late – 1990’s while the company iscertainly more than a place to get rich, executive still realize that money matters. One formerManager claims that the human resources’ department actually kept a running chart of employeesatisfaction versus the company’s stock price. “When the stock was up, human resources could turnoff the ventilation and everybody would say they were happy. When the stock was down, we couldgive people Massages and they would tell us that the Massages were too hard.” In the go-go 1990’s,when the Microsoft stock was doubling every few months and yearly stock splits were predictable,employees not only got to participate in the Microsoft’s manifest destiny, they would get rich in theprocess. By the spring of 2002, with the world in a recession, stock prices down, and the growth forMicrosoft products slowing, it wasn’t so clear what was driving its employees to continue thecompany’s dominance of the software industry.

Questions

 

  1. If you were the programmer, would you want to work at Microsoft? Why or Why not?
  2. How many activities in this case can you tie into specific motivation theories? List the activities; list the motivation theories, and how they apply.
  3. As Microsoft continues to get larger and its growth rate flattens do you think Management will have to modify any of its motivation practices? Elaborate.
  4. Can money act as a motivator? Explain.

 

 

 

 

 

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Case – 2

Merlyn Monroe is not a complainer. If she has a major ache, she usually suffers in silence. Although her employer, Atlantic Mutual Insurance, has an employee assistance program- to provide emotional and psychological support in the work plan. She certainly never thinks of using it, even if she did have a worry on her mind. “They say its confidential but who really knows? Asked Ms. Monroe’, an administrative assistant at the insurance company.

But Merlyn Monroe’s life changed on September 11, 2001. Her office at 140 Broadway in New York City, was near the world trade Center. She watched the whole thing from her 50th Floor office window.

Ms.Monroe had never seen so much destruction in her life. She had never seen such a horrific terrorist attack. Nor had she forced her to relieve 9/11 over and over.

Everything she talked to people they wanted details, which made it worse for her. She had so much anger about what had happened to her life and lives of so many people and the city where she worked for 40 Years.

Two weeks after 9/11, Ms.Monroe was still suffering after effects. Even though she lives on state Island and Atlantic Mutual’s offices have been temporarily relocated to Madison, New Jersey, not an hour goes by when she doesn’t have flashbacks of her experiences of 9/11.

Questions

  1. What should Atlantic Mutual Management do, if anything, to cope with the aftereffects of 9/11?
  2. How long would you expect employees to be adversely affected by 9/11 if a company provides no formal assistance for dealing with anger and stress?
  3. What, if anything, should Management do about employees who appear to be suffering from such kind or trauma and stress, but will neither admit it nor accept help from their employee?
  4. Outline the role of HR specialist in providing a safe and healthy environment for employees.

 

 

Case – 3

Patil, RK Materials, is very angry, anxious and restless. He bumped into Mehta, RK Materials, threw the resignation letter on his table, screamed and walked out of the room swiftly.

Patil has a reason for his sudden outburst. Details of the story will tell the reasons for Patil’s anger and why he put his resignation, only four months after he took up his job.

In the year 2000 Patil quit his prestigious Mittal plant at Vishakhapatnam. As a manager Materials, Patil had various powers like he could even place an order of materials worth Rs.50 Lakhs. He required nobody’s prior consent.

Patil Joined a pulp-making plant located at Kerala, as RK Materials. The plant is part of a multi-product and multi-plant conglomerate owned by a prestigious business house in India. The perks, reputation and designation of the conglomerate attracted Patil away from the public sector steel monolith.

When he joined the eucalyptus pulp making company, little did Patil realize that he needed prior approval to place an order for materials worth Rs.25 lakh. He thought that he had the authority to place an order for materials by himself worth half the amount of what he used to as at the Mega Steel maker. He placed the order, materials arrived, were received, accepted and used up in the plant. Trouble started when the bill for Rs.25 lakh came from the vendor. The accounts department withheld the payment for the reason that the bill was not endorsed by Mehta. Mehta refused to sign on the bill as his approval was not taken by Patil before placing the order.

Patil felt very angry and cheated. A brief encounter with Mehta only made the situation worse. Patil was rudely told that he should have known company rules before venturing. He decided to Quit.

Questions

  1. Do you think the company has any orientation programme? If yes, discuss its effectiveness.
  2. If employees were properly selected, there should be no need for an orientation programme”. Comment on the statement.
  3. If you were Patil, how would you react to the above situation?
  4. Discuss the purpose of orientation. What are various requisites of an effective programme?

 

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Case – 4

ABC Tool Engineering is a company producing machinery and machine tools and some other related engineering products for specialist production companies. It’s workforce consists of 1000 employees, two-thirds of which work in the production department. In 2000, the Management decided to introduce a total quality Management Scheme to increase efficiency and quality control. Throughout the 1990’s, more flexible arrangements had been introduced together with a breakdown of old work demarcation lines. Machines were now built by flexible teams of workers employing different skills like fitters, electricians, hydraulic engineers, etc. In 2000, the initiatives towards TQM were made with the introduction of BS 1110. Workers were asked to inspect the quality of their work which resulted in reduction of the need for specialist inspectors and both time and money were saved. Agreements were negotiated with the union for extra pay as a result of the increase in worker responsibility. In 2001, the Management decided to introduce a full-blown Total-quality Management Scheme on the basis of the success with the introduction of BS 1110. Problem solving groups were formed based on work groups with voluntary participation. Group leaders, who were mainly supervisors, were trained is how to run a group and in problem-solving techniques. The aims of the groups were

  1. Identifying problems inside their work area.
  2. Propose solutions
  3. Identifying problems outside their work area
  4. Refer external problems to a review team.

The review team consisted of Managers with one representative from each group, usually the group leader. The unions were lukewarm to the scheme and some shop stewards were directly against it. Within a period of 9 Months, the Total quality Management Scheme was reviewed and the senior Management came to the conclusion that it had not lived up to expectations, and few board members called it a failure. Some reason s they had identified were that team leaders had felt uncomfortable in their roles and there has been a lot of skepticism from some of the workers.

Questions

  1. According to You, why did the Bs1110 Scheme succeed and the TQM Scheme failed in ABC engineering? Define the term “workers” participation in management. Bring out the prerequisites for its success.
  2. Explain in your own words what empowerment means to you. Also discuss “A worker is a worker, a Manager a Manager and never the two shall meet.” Do you agree? Why?
  3. What suggestions would you give to a similar company who were thinking of introducing Total Quality Management to make it a success?

 

 

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Course: Consumer Behaviour

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Course: Consumer Behaviour

 

 

 

Internal Assignment Applicable for June 2016 Examination

 

Assignment Marks: 30

 

Instructions:

 

  • All Questions carry equal marks.
  • All Questions are compulsory
  • All answers to be explained in not more than 1000 words for question 1 and 2 and for question 3in not more than 500 words for each subsection. Use relevant examples, illustrations as far aspossible.
  • All answers to be written individually. Discussion and group work is not advisable.
  • Students are free to refer to any books/reference material/website/internet for attempting theirassignments, but are not allowed to copy the matter as it is from the source of reference.
  • Students should write the assignment in their own words. Copying of assignments from otherstudents is not allowed.

 

 

 

Question.1. Indian FMCG company having good range of well established brands in India, decided tolaunch packaged different fruit juices in Indian market, you as a brand manager, help thecompany in deciding the process of segmentation to launch branded fruit juice in Indianmarket. (10 Marks)

 

Answer:Dabur India Ltd is one of India’s driving FMCG Companies with Revenues of about US$750 Million (over Rs 3416 Crore) and Market Capitalization of over US$3.5 Billion (over Rs 16,000 Crore). Expanding on a legacy of value and experience of more than 125 years, Dabur is today India’s most trusted name and the world’s biggest Ayurvedic and Natural Health Care Company.

 

Dabur India is likewise a world pioneer in Ayurveda with an arrangement of more than 250 Herbal/Ayurvedic items. Dabur’s FMCG portfolio today incorporates five lead brands with unmistakable brand characters – Dabur as the

 

 

 

Question.2. One of the American Fast Food chain company showing interest in entering Indian market,you as their head of marketing help them in the process of entering Indian market lookinginto Indian culture. You need to responds to this question with specific points, keeping inmind Indian consumers and their culture. (10 Marks)

 

Answer:India has long had reputation for being by and large antagonistic to foreign organizations, however with regards to fast food, worldwide chains are as a rule warmly invited by a youthful, upwardly versatile populace.

 

In the previous couple of months, Taco Bell, Krispy Kreme, Burger King and McDonald’s have either declared arrangements to extend in India or have opened new outlets around the nation. Krispy Kreme was the most recent to open another

 

 

 

Question.3. One of the largest international brand of Ice cream company interested in entering Indianmarket, you as a head of Marketing prepare:

 

 

a)What kind of market research you would like to conduct and why? Give your logicalexplanation (5 Marks)

 

Answer:Client behavior study depends on purchaser purchasing behavior, with the client assuming the three unmistakable parts of client, payer and purchaser. Relationship showcasing is a compelling resource for client behavior investigation as it has a distinct fascination in the re-revelation of the genuine significance of advertising through the re-insistence of the significance of the client or purchaser. A more prominent significance is likewise put on purchaser maintenance, client relationship administration personalization, customization and coordinated advertising. Social capacities can be ordered into social decision and welfare capacities.

 

 

 

 

 

b)Prepare an questionnaire to conduct market survey to gather primary data from the market(5 Marks)

 

Answer:As we realize that client is the ruler of any business, It is crucial to comprehend client desires their inclinations towards the item and their needs and needs. Without comprehension shopper behavior no organizations can survive.

 

It serves as an input from the purchaser and give the organizations the message with respect to the customer states of mind, organizations

 

 

 

 

 

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Top of Form

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Course: Strategic HRM

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NMIMS Global Access

School for Continuing Education (NGA-SCE)

 

 

 

Course: Strategic HRM

 

 

 

Internal Assignment Applicable for June 2016 Examination

 

Assignment Marks: 30

 

Instructions:

 

  • All Questions carry equal marks.
  • All Questions are compulsory
  • All answers to be explained in not more than 1000 words for question 1 and 2 and for question 3in not more than 500 words for each subsection. Use relevant examples, illustrations as far aspossible.
  • All answers to be written individually. Discussion and group work is not advisable.
  • Students are free to refer to any books/reference material/website/internet for attempting theirassignments, but are not allowed to copy the matter as it is from the source of reference.
  • Students should write the assignment in their own words. Copying of assignments from otherstudents is not allowed.

 

 

 

Question. 1. Among major strategic management techniques like e-recruitment, outsourcingrecruitments, headhunting and assessment centres, which one do you prefer the most for recruitingthe branch managers for a bank across various locations in India and why? Supplement your replywith adequate reasoning. (10 Marks)

 

Answer:Recruitment is ‘scanning for and acquiring potential competitors in adequate numbers and quality so that the association can choose the fitting individuals to fill its employment needs’; Selection is concerned more with ‘foreseeing which hopefuls will make the most suitable commitment to the association now and later on’. The enlistment and determination procedure is worried with distinguishing, drawing in and picking reasonable individuals to meet an association’s human asset necessities.

 

The bore of new recruits is of clear significance to a

 

 

 

Question.2. Career development, career planning and career management essentially mean the samething. Do you agree? Bring out the similarities or dissimilarities among the concepts based on yourresponse. (10 Marks)

 

Answer:On the off chance that you need to change roles or excel in your career, it’s critical that you know how to recognize and seek after circumstances that are a decent match for your intrigues, aptitudes, and circumstances.

 

This requires significant investment. You can think about the procedure of discovering open doors as an adventure that will in the end lead you to an energizing yet

 

 

 

Question.3. Read the case study carefully and answer the questions.

 

You have learnt from your sources that there has been a move to poach a significant number ofemployees in the leadership cadre from your organization.

 

Your organization already has a very high attrition rate owing to stressful work culture,bureaucracy, limited potential for growth, lower work life balance as compared to otherorganizations for the mid managerial cadre.

 

It is inevitable that you ensure that you retain the leadership cadre to continue having yourcompetitive advantage in the market.

 

Analyze the given scenario and answer the following questions:

 

 

a)How will you formulate a retention strategy for the top management? (5 marks)

 

Answer:One of the greatest challenges confronting employers today is finding and keeping great employees. This article depicts some viable employee maintenance systems that will help you hold great staff and build up a steady workforce.

 

The initial step is to comprehend why representatives clear out. The second is to actualize employee maintenance techniques to motivate them to sit tight.

 

Five fundamental reasons why employees leave

 

 

 

 

b)What HR policies will you introduce to lower turnover at the mid managerial level?(5 marks)

 

Answer:Managing workforce profitability includes tolerating obligation regarding improving the ROI (rate of profitability) for work cost, pretty much as different capacities accomplish for their exercises. While some in HR would contend that it’s the administrator’s part to build efficiency, it’s sheltered to accept that directors are not specialists, nor are they learned about how to do as such.

 

Expanding efficiency is a standout amongst the most basic objectives in business. Sadly, it’s a movement at times acknowledged by HR experts as an authentic command. While most HR experts recognize that their occupation involves setting up approach, strategies, and projects Managing individuals administration, few endeavor to interface such components to expanding worker yield (volume, rate, and quality) per every dollar spent on

 

 

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Course: Business Economics

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NMIMS Global Access

School for Continuing Education (NGA-SCE)

 

 

Course: Business Economics

 

Internal Assignment Applicable for June 2016 Examination

 

 

Assignment Marks: 30

 

Instructions:

 

  • All Questions carry equal marks.
  • All Questions are compulsory
  • All answers to be explained in not more than 1000 words for question 1 and 2 and for question 3in not more than 500 words for each subsection. Use relevant examples, illustrations as far aspossible.
  • All answers to be written individually. Discussion and group work is not advisable.
  • Students are free to refer to any books/reference material/website/internet for attempting theirassignments, but are not allowed to copy the matter as it is from the source of reference.
  • Students should write the assignment in their own words. Copying of assignments from otherstudents is not allowed.

 

 

 

Question. 1. Long run cost structure of a firm is influenced by many factors, some of which are beyond the control of a manager of firm. Discuss why the long run average cost curve is U-shaped by bringing about the importance of scale economies and diseconomies. (10 Marks)

 

Answer:In Fig. 19.7, we have drawn the long-run normal cost bend as having an around U-shape. It is by and large accepted by financial experts that the long-run normal cost bend is regularly U formed, that is, the long-run normal cost bend first decays as yield is expanded and after that past a specific point it rises. Presently, what is the best possible clarification of such conduct of the long-run normal cost bend?

 

 

 

Question.2. Perfect competition and monopoly are two extremes of market structure. Evaluate the statement by analyzing contrasting features and equilibrium price and quantity determination process under these two types of market. Illustrate your discussion with the help of real world examples. (10 Marks)

 

Answer:A business sector can be organized distinctively relying upon the attributes of competition inside that market. At one compelling is impeccable competition. In a splendidly focused business sector, there are numerous makers and shoppers, no hindrances to enter and leave the business sector, flawlessly homogeneous products, immaculate data, and very much characterized property rights. This delivers a framework in which no individual monetary on-screen character can influence the cost of a decent – as it were, makers are value takers that can pick the amount to create, however not the cost at which they can offer their yield. Truly there are couple of commercial ventures that are genuinely impeccably focused, yet some come close. For instance, item markets, (for example, coal or copper) regularly have

 

 

 

Question.3. a).Other things remaining the same, what would happen to the supply of a commodity if the following changes occur? Illustrate your answers with the help of diagram. (5 marks)

 

  1. The price of commodity decreases.
  2. A technological breakthrough helps in producing a commodity at a cheaper cost.
  3. Price of inputs to produce that commodity increases.
  4. Price of substitute increases.
  5. Manager of the product expects the price of that product to rise in future.

 

Answer:Cost of a commodity is dictated by the interest for and supply of a commodity. The concept of interest as indicated by which the interest for a commodity is contrarily identified with its cost. Supply of a commodity relies on how the physical returns and costs change as more yield of a product is produced. We are presently to clarify the concept of supply and the idea of versatility of supply.

 

The Meaning of Supply: As interest is characterized as a calendar of the amounts of good that will be obtained at different costs, also the supply alludes to the timetable of the amounts of a decent that will be offered at deal at different costs. To be more

 

 

 

3.b. For the following situations, calculate elasticity of demand and comment on the answer.(5 marks)

 

Answer:Price elasticity of demand (PED or Ed) is a measure utilized as a part of financial aspects to demonstrate the responsiveness, or versatility, of the amount requested of a decent or administration to an adjustment in its cost, ceteris paribus. All the more exactly, it gives the rate change in amount requested in light of a one percent change in cost (ceteris paribus)

 

Price flexibilities are quite often negative, in spite of the fact that investigators have a tendency to overlook the sign despite the fact that this can prompt vagueness. Just products which don’t adjust to the law of demand, for example, Veblen and Giffen merchandise, have a positive PED. All in all, the demand for a decent is said to be inelastic (or generally inelastic) when the PED is short of what one (in outright esteem): that is, changes in

 

 

  1. When the price of commodity X was Rs. 12/-, 40 units it were demanded. When the price decreased to Rs. 6/-, 50 unit are demanded. Find price elasticity of demand and comment on the answer.

 

Answer:Income elasticities of interest can be utilized as a pointer of industry wellbeing, future utilization designs and as a manual for firm’s speculation choices. For instance, the “chosen wage flexibilities” beneath recommend that an expanding part of purchaser’s financial plans will be dedicated to obtaining autos and eatery dinners and a littler offer to tobacco and margarine.

 

Income elasticities are firmly identified with the populace pay dispersion and the part of the item’s business owing to purchasers from various levels of

 

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