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BK ID B2043




Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



  1. 1. a. List the factors responsible for the increasing importance of Business Intelligence in organizations.



Answer:Internally, wider access to BI solutions can make all employees more accountable while supporting greater consistency in performance management. And externally, partner relationships can be strengthened through effective sharing of data and key performance indicators (KPIs).


According to IDC, an elevated interest in BI and analytics can be traced back as far as 2008. Studies then showed that data analysis was a top priority for nearly half of survey respondents. Judging by the expanding offerings of enhanced BI and analytics products from software providers, the demand has not abated.






  1. Elaborate any two divisions of benefits of business intelligence in contemporary organizations.



Answer:  Reduced labor costs

The most tangible benefit of BI is the time and effort saved with manually producing the standard reports for the organization. It is rarely the largest benefit though. However, because it is so tangible it is often part of the equation when a decision must be made about implementing BI, and if it turns out that these savings alone can justify the





  1. 2. Roles and responsibilities must be well defined in any organisations to perform well. The effectiveness of business intelligence teams can be improved to a greater extent when the roles and responsibilities are well defined within the organization.



Answer: Business intelligence–the use of sophisticated software to analyze complex data–is no longer the domain of a centralized group of IT staff or advanced data analysts. Today, powerful and Web-based BI tools are accessible to a wide range of business users.


BI is everywhere, and it’s everyone’s job. But with this proliferation comes new challenges. Teams of BI users today often lack the structure, guidance and leadership to effectively mine data. In this article, I’ll share four steps to establish guidelines, organize





  1. 3. Critically analyse the risks involved in data mining.



Answer: As with all information technologies data mining benefits offer an opportunity to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation. The core idea behind data mining is that through the use of appropriate technologies we can identify patterns of behaviour, in customers, employees, suppliers, machinery and in fact any aspect of the organisation provided data has been captured. These patterns would then allow us to improve understanding of processes and in some instances predict the outcome of a situation. Obviously this has great appeal and the suppliers of data mining technology are not shy when it comes to advertising





  1. 4. a. What are Business intelligence tools?


Answer: Business intelligence tools are a type of application software designed to retrieve, analyze, transform and report data for business intelligence. The tools generally read data that have been previously stored, often, though not necessarily, in a data warehouse or data mart.


Types of business intelligence tools



  1. Differentiate between tools supporting insight creation capability and those supporting presentation capability



Answer: The volume of customer data that is available to organisations continues to grow.  Executives need to think beyond the issue of how to handle the volume of data and address the critical question of how to turn it into insight and use it to drive value.  We know from the assessment of customer management capabilities in hundreds of organisations that few have optimised the value they can create from the customer data they already have, let alone the enterprise-wide or big data.





  1. 5. Market research is a significant element of marketing since it is responsible for studying the customer and fulfilling their needs. Explain Market Models based on the concept of Business intelligence.


Answer: Business intelligence (BI) is the set of techniques and tools for the transformation of raw data into meaningful and useful information for business analysis purposes. BI technologies are capable of handling large amounts of unstructured data to help identify, develop and otherwise create new strategic business opportunities. The goal of BI is to allow for the easy interpretation of these large volumes of data. Identifying new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy based on insights can provide businesses with a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.





  1. 6. Explore the benefits of cloud computing


Answer: Simply put, cloud computing is computing based on the internet. Where in the past, people would run applications or programs from software downloaded on a physical computer or server in their building, cloud computing allows people access the same kinds of applications through the internet. It is a solution growing in popularity, especially amongst SMEs. The CRN predicts that by 2014, small businesses will spend almost $100 billion on cloud


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BK ID B1973




Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



  1. 1. a. Discuss computer networks categorically.


Answer:A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other along network links (data connections). The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.


Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes.[1] Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be





  1. Define Network protocols. What are the various types of computer network?



Answer:Network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that its quality of service deteriorates. Typical effects include queueing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increase in network throughput, or to an actual reduction in network throughput.






  1. 2. Explain the following terms:


  1. Video Compression


Answer:Video compression uses modern coding techniques to reduce redundancy in video data. Most video compression algorithms and codecs combine spatial image compression and temporal motion compensation. Video compression is a practical implementation of source coding in information theory. In practice, most video codecs also use audio compression techniques in parallel to compress the separate, but combined data streams as one package.





  1. Audio Compression


Answer:Audio data compression, as distinguished from dynamic range compression, has the potential to reduce the transmission bandwidth and storage requirements of audio data. Audio compression algorithms are implemented in software as audio codecs. Lossy audio compression algorithms provide higher compression at the cost of fidelity and are used in numerous audio applications. These algorithms almost all rely on psychoacoustics to eliminate less audible or meaningful sounds, thereby reducing the





  1. 3. Discuss the features of the Bluetooth technology and how they all make it work.


Answer:Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz]) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.  Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more





  1. 4. Explain the network configuration of Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) and its pros and cons.



Answer:Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) with typical channel spacing of 100 GHz for 40 channels and 50 GHz for 80 channels. Each channel contains a TDM (time division multiplex) signal. And each of up to 80 channels can carry 2.5 Gbps for a total of 200 billion bits per second by the optical fiber. These signals use the 3rd transmission window, called the C-Band, meaning the light beam






  1. 5. Shed light on User-to-network and Network-to-network connectivity and the technologies used.


Answer:A wireless network is any type of computer network that uses wireless data connections for connecting network nodes.  Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and




  1. 6. What are the benefits and drawbacks of Cloud computing?



Answer:There is no doubt that businesses can reap huge benefits from cloud computing. However, with the many advantages, come some drawbacks as well. Take time to understand the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing, so that you can get the most out of your business technology, whichever provider you choose.


Advantages of Cloud Computing



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BK ID B1966



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



  1. 1. a. Database management system acts as intermediary agent between programs and the data. Explain various procedures carried on in a DBMS with example.


Answer:A Database Management System (DBMS) is basically a collection of programs that enables users to store, modify, and extract information from a database as per the requirements. DBMS is an intermediate layer





  1. List and explain the properties of DBMS


Answer: There are a lot of database software manufacturers out there and a wide range of prices, sizes, speeds and functionalities. At the lower end of the scale are personal database software products like Microsoft Access, which is designed to be used by individuals or small companies relatively little data. User friendliness and






  1. 2. Explain the following terminology with an example


  1. Domain


Answer:Domain knowledge is valid knowledge used to refer to an area of human endeavour, an autonomous computer activity, or other specialized discipline.  Specialists and experts use and develop their own domain knowledge. If the concept domain knowledge or domain expert is used, we emphasize a specific domain which is an object of the discourse/interest/problem.





  1. Degree of relation


Answer: The degree of relationship (also known as cardinality) is the number of occurrences in one entity which are associated (or linked) to the number of occurrences in another.


There are three degrees of relationship, known as:


one-to-one (1:1)

one-to-many (1:M)





  1. Entity set


Answer: Entities and Entity Sets


  • An entity is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other objects. For instance, John Harris with S.I.N. 890-12-3456 is an entity, as he can be uniquely identified as one particular person in the universe.


  • An entity may be concrete





  1. Primary key


Answer: A primary key is a field in a table which uniquely identifies each row/record in a database table. Primary keys must contain unique values. A primary key column cannot have NULL values.


A table can have only one primary key, which may consist of single or multiple fields. When multiple fields are used as a primary key, they are called a composite key.





  1. tuple


Answer: A tuple is a finite ordered list of elements. In mathematics, an n-tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of n elements, where n is a non-negative integer. There is only one 0-tuple, an empty sequence. An n-tuple is defined inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Tuples are usually written by listing the elements within parentheses “(\text{ })” and separated by commas; for example, (2, 7, 4, 1, 7)





  1. 3. Write short notes on :


  1. cardinality ratio


Answer: In database design, the cardinality or fundamental principle of one data table with respect to another is a critical aspect. The relationship of one to the other must be precise and exact between each other in order to explain how each table links together.




  1. participation constraints


Answer:In game theory, and particularly mechanism design, participation constraints or rational participation constraints are said to be satisfied if a mechanism leaves all participants at least as well off as they would have been if they hadn’t participated.  Unfortunately, it can frequently be shown that participation constraints are incompatible with other desirable properties of mechanisms for many purposes.  One kind




  1. 4. a. A WFF is constructed from one or more atoms connected via Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) and quantifiers. List the rules for WFF for all quantifiers.


Answer: The formation rules define the terms and formulas of first order logic. When terms and formulas are represented as strings of symbols, these rules can be used to write a formal grammar for terms and formulas. These rules are generally context-free (each production has a single symbol on the left side), except that the set of symbols may be allowed to be infinite and there may be many start symbols, for example the variables in the case of terms.






  1. What are free and bound variables?


Answer: In mathematics, and in other disciplines involving formal languages, including mathematical logic and computer science, a free variable is a notation that specifies places in an expression where substitution may take place. Some older books use the terms real variable and apparent variable for free variable and bound variable. The idea is related to a placeholder (a symbol that will later be replaced by some literal string), or a wildcard





  1. 5. a. Describe two phase locking. Elaborate the terminologies used in two phase locking.


Answer: In databases and transaction processing, two-phase locking (2PL) is a concurrency control method that guarantees serializability.[1][2] It is also the name of the resulting set of database transaction schedules (histories). The protocol utilizes






  1. Elaborate advantages of Distributed database management systems



Answer: A distributed database is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common processing unit such as the CPU, controlled by a distributed database management system (together sometimes called a distributed database system). It may be stored in multiple computers, located in the same physical location; or may be dispersed over a network of interconnected computers. Unlike parallel systems, in which the processors are tightly coupled and constitute a single database system, a distributed database




  1. 6. a. What are the advantages in using object oriented database management systems (ODBMS) over relational database management systems.


Answer: An object database (also object-oriented database management system) is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming. Object databases are different from relational databases which are table-oriented. Object-relational databases are a hybrid of both approaches.






  1. What are the disadvantages of ODBMS



Answer:Schema Changes: In an OODBMS based application modifying the schema by creating, updating or modifying a persistent class typically means that changes have to be made to the other classes in the application that interact with instances of that class. This typically means that all schema changes in an OODBMS will involve a system wide recompile. Also updating all the instance objects within the database can take an extended period of time depending on the size of the database.

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BK ID B1965



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.




  1. 1. Explain the overall agile process in detail


Answer:Agile development is billed as an iterative, incremental process that can cut down the time it takes build and deliver IT systems to business users. So what makes an agile project successful?  How do development teams avoid pitfalls that could sink a project? Various experts from government and industry involved in agile development offer a few tips.


  1. Establish strong relationships between IT and business customers. In order for agile to work there has to be a strong relationship between the IT department and contractors with the agency’s business customer. The business customer, in turn, has to be able to work where there aren’t clearly defined processes, according to Jeff Newlin, vice president and general manager of OutSystems, a provider of agile technology.





  1. Explain COCOMO in a nutshell



Answer:The Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) is an algorithmic software cost estimation model developed by Barry W. Boehm. The model uses a basic regression formula with parameters that are derived from historical project data and current as well as future project characteristics.


References to this model typically call it COCOMO 81. In 1995 COCOMO II was developed and finally published in 2000 in the book Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II.[2] COCOMO II is the successor of COCOMO 81 and is better suited for estimating modern software development projects. It provides more support for






  1. 3. a. Explain function oriented metrics


Answer: Function-oriented software metrics use a measure of the functionality delivered by the application as a normalization value. Since ‘functionality’ cannot be measured directly, it must be derived indirectly using other direct measures. Function-oriented metrics were first proposed by Albrecht , who suggested a measure called the function point. Function points are derived using an empirical relationship based on countable (direct) measures of software’s information domain and assessments of software complexity.






  1. How do you calculate function points?


Answer: To compute function points (FP), the following relationship is used:


FP = count total [0.65 + 0.01 Σ(Fi)] where count total is the sum of all FP entries .


The Fi (i = 1 to 14) are “complexity adjustment values” based on responses to the following questions :

  1. Does the system require reliable backup and recovery?
  2. Are data communications required?
  3. Are there distributed processing functions?
  4. Is performance critical?
  5. Will the system run in an existing, heavily utilized operational environment?
  6. Does the system






  1. 4. a. Explain the system architecture specification


Answer:  Architecture should provide guidance to developers in such a way to avoid integration and maintenance issues. More specifically, architecture should identify things such as approved operating systems, approved development languages, approved data storage systems, approved communication protocols, coding practices,






  1. Explain System specification review


Answer: A System Requirements Review (SRR) is a formal review conducted to ensure that system requirements have been completely and properly identified and that a mutual understanding between the government and contractor exists. It ensure that the system under review can proceed into initial systems development and that all system and performance requirements derived from the Initial Capabilities Document (ICD







Q.5. Explain the 12-step program design process of software engineering that is followed to get the organizations back on track.



Answer: The life cycle most of us probably are most familiar with is the system development life cycle (SDLC), which is closely allied with the project management life cycle. The diagram below shows both together.







  1. 6. a. Elaborate on Capability Maturity Model components.


Answer: Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes. There are three different types of appraisals, type A, B and C. In Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) the requirements for CMMI appraisal methods are described. The Standard CMMI Assessment Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) is the only appraisal method





  1. Define Quality control and Cost of quality with the types of cost.



Answer:Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. ISO 9000 defines quality control as “A part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements”.


This approach places an emphasis on three aspects:


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PROGRAM Bachelor of Business Administration- BBA
BK ID B1598
Credit & Marks 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS



Note – Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should beapproximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


  1. 1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of television advertising. Also explainwhat do you understand by Internet Advertising and Social Media Networkadvertising?


Answer:Television and internet advertising:Today everyone has TV and advertising on TV is one the best options to promote your products. The ad coming on TV also put high impact on the customers. There will be more positive effects in building brands. Advertisers are innovating new ways for their campaigns on high definition televisions. India Advertising agencies are coming up with glitzy, smart and tailored type ads targeting the middle classes. Besides, a number Hindi India media news channels have been launched and they are reaching to the masses both in urban and rural parts of the country. Indian television news channels are now have become more effective as advertising agency.


With the advent of the ad server, marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the “dot-com” boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites, including the search engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant ads based on an individual’s browsing interests. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising.


Advantages and disadvantages of TV advertising


Advantages of Television Advertising: Some advantages of television advertising include the following:


  • Television reaches very large audiences – usually much larger than the audience your local newspaper reaches, and it does so during a short period of time.
  • Since there are fewer television stations than radio stations in a given area, each TV audience is divided into much larger segments, which enables you to reach a larger, yet, more diverse audience.
  • It has the ability to convey your message with sight, sound and motion, and can give a product or service instant validity and prominence.
  • You can easily reach targeted audiences. Children can be reached during cartoon programming, housewives during the afternoon soap operas, and insomniacs after midnight.


Disadvantages of Television Advertising


  • When you advertise on TV, your commercial is not only competing with others, it is also competing with the viewer’s environment as well.
  • Even if your commercial is being aired, viewers may never see it unless it is intrusive enough to capture their attention.
  • A minimum amount of airtime provides limited length of exposure and ad clutter.
  • The message comes and goes, and that’s it! Unless you buy additional time, the viewer doesn’t see your commercial again.


Social media network advertising:Social network advertising, also social media targeting is a group of terms that are used to describe forms of Online advertising that focus on social networking sites. One of the major benefits of advertising on a social networking site (e.g. Facebook, Myspace, Friendster, Bebo, Orkut, etc.) is that advertisers can take advantage of the users demographic information and target their ads appropriately.  Social media targeting combines current targeting options (like geotargeting, behavioral targeting, socio-psychographic targeting, etc.), to make detailed target group identification possible.



  1. 2. Explain the consumer buying decision process.


Answer:Find out the 5 stages of Consumer Buying Decision Process that guide shoppers in their decision and purchase process when buying a product. And learn how to improve your marketing strategy to create a need, strengthen your relationship with your customers and increase your sales.


  1. Need recognition / Problem recognition:The need recognition is the first and most important step in the buying process. If there is no need, there is no purchase. This recognition happens when there is a lag between the consumer’s actual situation and the ideal and desired one.


However, not all the needs end up as a buying behavior. It requires that the lag between the two situations is quite important. But the “way” (product price, ease of acquisition, etc.) to obtain this ideal situation has to be perceived as “acceptable” by the consumer based on the level of importance he attributes to the need.


  1. Information search: Once the need is identified, it’s time for the consumer to seek information about possible solutions to the problem. He will search more or less information depending on the complexity of the choices to be made but also his level of involvement. (Buying pasta requires little information and involves fewer consumers than buying a car.)


III. Alternative evaluation: Once the information collected, the consumer will be able to evaluate the different alternatives that offer to him, evaluate the most suitable to his needs and choose the one he think it’s best for him.


In order to do so, he will evaluate their attributes on two aspects. The objective characteristics (such as the features and functionality of the product) but also subjective (perception and perceived value of the brand by the consumer or its reputation).


  1. Purchase decision: Now that the consumer has evaluated the different solutions and products available for respond to his need, he will be able to choose the product or brand that seems most appropriate to his needs. Then proceed to the actual purchase itself.


His decision will depend on the information and the selection made in the previous step based on the perceived value, product’s features and capabilities that are important to him.


But his Consumer Buying Decision Process and his decision process may also depend or be affected by such things as the quality of his shopping experience or of the store (or online shopping website), the availability of a promotion, a return policy or good terms and conditions for the sale.


  1. Post-purchase behaviour: Once the product is purchased and used, the consumer will evaluate the adequacy with his original needs (those who caused the buying behavior). And whether he has made ​​the right choice in buying this product or not. He will feel either a sense of satisfaction for the product (and the choice). Or, on the contrary, a disappointment if the product has fallen far short of expectations.




  1. 3. Observe any newspaper advertisement of any consumer durable company. What is the target audience and what are benefits of choosing newspaper for advertisement.


Answer:Target Audience:When you place an ad in a target-specific magazine, you are marketing directly to a specific target audience rather than a general one. In other words, by simply placing the ad you’ve zeroed in on a market niche that is probably already interested in the type of product or service you’re offering.


If you’re selling a hair product, an ad placed in a fashion or hairstyling magazine will attract potential consumers who are looking for just this type of product. If you place the same ad in a general-interest magazine with a less specific readership, you reduce the likelihood that most readers will be interested in your product. When choosing which publication will attract the right consumers, consider not only the focus of the magazine but the age and gender of its readers as well.


Selection of appropriate advertisement:


Step 1:Top the ad with an attention-getting headline. A bold, well-worded headline will draw people to your ad. In the absence of a strong headline, newspaper readers will be more likely to just skip over your section of the paper.


Step 2:Use a clear, easy-to-read font. Select a bold font in a simple print. Consider the use of Arial or another clear font to ensure that an overly complicated font does not deter potential customers.

Step 3:Include no more than two or three sentences explaining the good or service. Do not overload your ad with text. You only want to include the most important information in two to three simple sentences.


Step 4:Use simple vocabulary, and avoid jargon. Potential customers are not likely to consult a dictionary to discover the meaning of a complex or overly technical word.



The Advantages of newspaper advertising are:


  1. Reach:Nearly 7 out of 10 adults have read a newspaper in the past week – that’s 147 million Americans!


  1. Engagement:Readers are highly engaged with newspapers in print, online, smart phones and tablets because they value the news, advertising and local feature coverage.


  1. Local coverage:No other medium has the in depth community coverage that newspapers offer. Over two-thirds of the dollars spent in newspaper advertising is from local advertisers. This is one of the newspaper advertising advantages that advertisers looking to target local communities should pay attention to.


  1. Targeting options:One of the strong benefits of newspaper advertising is that newspapers offer a variety of ways to target a particular audience. Whether it’s zoning inserts by zip code or using a niche publication to target a certain ethnic group or behaviourally targeting a certain group on a newspaper website.


5.Convenience:Newspaper companies offer their readers a variety of platforms to choose from in which to receive their news and advertising content.  Readers highly value the ability to consume newspapers in the format that is most convenient and useful depending on the time and place.



  1. 4. Explain the AIDAS model in detail.

Answer: If you’ve ever been motivated to take action due to an advertisement, you’ve likely been influenced by a technique called A.I.D.A, which stands for “attention, interest, desire, action.” This process is used by many marketers in their communications to entice prospects to make a purchase or take a desired action. The technique is commonly used in advertising vehicles such as television commercials and direct mail pieces.



The attention portion of the marketing message occurs at the beginning and is designed to give the prospects a reason to take notice. Presenting a shocking fact or statistic that identifies a problem which can be solved by the product or service is one common method of gaining attention. Other methods can include asking a thought-provoking question or using the element of surprise. The purpose is to give the prospects a reason for wanting to learn more.



Once you’ve gained the prospects’ attention, the next step is to maintain interest in your product or service to keep the recipients engaged. Explain to the recipients how the problem you’ve identified in the attention step is adversely affecting their lives. A demonstration or illustration can help the recipients to further identify with the problem and want to actively seek possible solutions. By personalizing the problem, you’re making it hit closer to home.





In the desire stage, your objective is to show the prospects how your product or service can solve their problem. Explain the features of the product or service and the related benefits and demonstrate how the benefits fulfill the need. A common advertising process is the “before and after” technique, such as when a cleaning product makes a soiled item look brand new. If done effectively, the prospects should now have the desire to make a purchase.



Now that you’ve created the desire to make a purchase, the final step is to persuade the prospects to take immediate action. In a one-on-one sales process, this is the time to ask for the sale. In the advertising world, techniques involve creating sense of urgency by extending an offer for a limited time or including a bonus of special gift to those who act within a specific time frame. Without a specific call to action, the prospect may simply forget about your offer and move on.



  1. 5. What do you understand by Public relations? What is the difference between PRand advertising?


Answer: Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. This differentiates it from advertising as a form of marketing communications. The aim of public relations is to inform the public, prospective customers, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders and ultimately persuade them to maintain a certain view about the organization, its leadership, products, or of political decisions. Public relations professionals typically work for PR and marketing firms, businesses and companies, government, government agencies, and public officials as PIOs, and nongovernmental organizations and nonprofit organizations.


Difference between advertising and PR


Advertising: The difference between advertising and public relations is pretty straightforward. Essentially, advertising is paid for, meaning that companies purchase ad space in a magazine or a blog or on a billboard and then put the ad they have designed into the space they paid for. By paying for space, the company has total control over what is placed – both the image and message. Offline advertising like magazine ads or billboards are measured by how many impressions (views) the advertisement is projected to get. Online advertising like banner ads on blogs or a dedicated (paid for) email newslwtters are often measured by how much traffic theygenerates to the website, and how many people purchase from that link. Owned vs. Earned Media


The nature of advertising means that it is often referred to as owned media, because the company essentially owns both the content and the space where the ad is placed. In contrast, the media relations function of public relations, the part where we pitch the media to cover clients in a newspaper, morning show, magazine, and so on, is  referred to as earned media. Companies don’t purchase a story in the style section of the New York Times. Instead they pitch a reporter, editor, or news producer on the idea that the company or product has enough value or relevancy to merit coverage. And, unlike advertsing, outreach through public relations means that neither the publicist or the brand she represents has control over how the story is written or the product is portrayed.


Public Relations: Fashion public relations often focuses primarily on securing media coverage for clients, through a variety of strategies and tactics. PR is also the communication function responsible for nurturing the relationship between a company and well, anybody who is interested. For practitioners, this may mean interfacing directly with customers or shareholders, performing crisis communication (the actions a company takes when something goes wrong), social media management, community outreach, and planning events, in addition to working with the media.



  1. 6. Write short notes on:
  2. a) Sales quota:Sales Quota is the sales goal set for a product line, company division or sales representative. It helps the managers to define and stimulate sales effort.Sales quota is the minimum sales goal for a set time span.


Generally sales quotas are set slightly higher than the estimated sales so as to stretch the sales force effort.


Sales quotas are developed through the study of annual territory marketing plan. In this the plan for developing new accounts and expanding existing accounts is given by the representatives.


Example: –


New business goal: – $1,000,000

Average sales size: – $50,000

Total sales needed to achieve the goal: 20


Significance: Sales objectives serve as the foundation for an overall sales plan. Without clearly understood sales objectives, individual sales representatives may not be able to reach their goals, causing the company to fall short of its revenue projections.


Features: Sales objectives can contain quotas, the number of sales calls expected during a specific period, territory assignments and other key metrics.


Time Frame: Managers will often establish sales objectives during the sales planning process, which begins several months before the fiscal or calendar year.



b)sales force:Generating income and revenue are the primary roles of the sales force. A sales team must work together to increase brand awareness and drive sales forward. Small businesses hiring salespeople for the first time must overcome the challenges of finding a cohesive team to work well together.


Significance: In addition to generating income, the sales force builds trust with customers. Sales representatives engage customers at all stages of the relationship. New customers need interaction and opportunities to learn about the brand.


Types: Businesses can decide between two types of sales teams or use a combination of both. Outside sales representatives, also called field reps, work independently to generate sales. This type of sales force structure works best with responsible, self-starters who need little supervision.


Benefits: The benefits of hiring a competent sales team include increased brand awareness, heightened company loyalty, and increased revenues. It may take some trial and error during the hiring process, but finding effective salespeople takes patience.


Overcome Objections: Efficient salespeople need to overcome the three main types of objections without feeling rejected or intimidated. Customers conditionally decline a product or service when they say they do not need or cannot afford it.


Warning: Salespeople can make or break a business, depending on their level of professionalism, commitment, and integrity. When first hiring a sales force, businesses must check references and use effective interview techniques to find people who best fit the company culture and its goals.








PROGRAM Bachelor of Business Administration- BBA
BK ID B1597
Credit & Marks 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS



Note – Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should beapproximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



1 Define the term Quality management. What are the dimensions of quality? Differentiate between Quality Control and Quality Assurance.

Answer: Definition of Quality :


Quality in business, engineering and manufacturing has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it is also defined as fitness for purpose. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people. Consumers may focus on the specification quality of a product/service, or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers might measure the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/service was produced correctly. Support personnel may measure quality in the degree that a product is reliable, maintainable, or sustainable. Simply put, a quality item (an item that has quality) has the ability to perform satisfactorily in service and is suitable for its intended purpose.


Dimensions of quality :


Eight dimensions of product quality management can be used at a strategic level to analyze quality characteristics.


Dimension 1: Performance


Performance is often a source of contention between customers and suppliers, particularly when deliverables are not adequately defined within specifications. The performance of a product often influences profitability or reputation of the end-user. As such, many contracts or specifications include damages related to inadequate performance.


Dimension 2: Features


While this dimension may seem obvious, performance specifications rarely define the features required in a product. Thus, it’s important that suppliers designing product or services from performance specifications are familiar with its intended uses, and maintain close relationships with the end-users.


Dimension 3: Reliability



Reliability may be closely related to performance. For instance, a product specification may define parameters for up-time, or acceptable failure rates. Reliability is a major contributor to brand or company image, and is considered a fundamental dimension of quality by most end-users.


Dimension 4: Conformance


If it’s developed based on a performance specification, does it perform as specified? If it’s developed based on a design specification, does it possess all of the features defined?


Dimension 5: Durability


Durability is closely related to warranty. Requirements for product durability are often included within procurement contracts and specifications. For instance, fighter aircraft procured to operate from aircraft carriers include design criteria intended to improve their durability in the demanding naval environment.


Dimension 6: Serviceability


As end users become more focused on Total Cost of Ownership than simple procurement costs, serviceability (as well as reliability) is becoming an increasingly important dimension of quality and criteria for product selection.


Dimension 7: Aesthetics


The way a product looks is important to end-users. The aesthetic properties of a product contribute to a company’s or brand’s identity. Faults or defects in a product that diminish its aesthetic properties, even those that do not reduce or alter other dimensions of quality, are often cause for rejection.


Dimension 8: Perception


Perception is reality. The product or service may possess adequate or even superior dimensions of quality, but still fall victim to negative customer or public perceptions.


Differences between Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Definitions of QA and QC

  • Quality Assurance (QA) refers to the process used to create the deliverables, and can be performed by a manager, client, or even a third-party reviewer. Examples of quality assurance include process checklists, project audits and methodology and standards development.
  • Quality Control (QC) refers to quality related activities associated with the creation of project deliverables. Quality control is used to verify that deliverables are of acceptable quality and that they are complete and correct. Examples of quality control activities include inspection, deliverable peer reviews and the testing process.
  • Quality control is about adherence to requirements. Quality assurance is generic and does not concern the specific requirements of the product being developed.
  • Quality assurance activities are determined before production work begins and these activities are performed while the product is being developed. In contrast, Quality control activities are performed after the product is developed.




Q2. Differentiate between Mission and Vision Statements. Write a brief note on “quality objectives”.


Answer: Difference between Mission and Vision Statements :


  1. About:

A Mission statement talks about HOW you will get to where you want to be. Defines the purpose and primary objectives related to your customer needs and team values.

A Vision statement outlines WHERE you want to be. Communicates both the purpose and values of your business.


  1. Answer:


A mission statement answers the question, “What do we do? What makes us different?”

A vision statement answers the question, “Where do we aim to be?”


  1. Time :


A mission statement talks about the present leading to its future.

A vision statement talks about your future.


  1. Function


A mission statement lists the broad goals for which the organization is formed. Its prime function is internal; to define the key measure or measures of the organization’s success and its prime audience is the leadership, team and stockholders.

A vision statement  lists where you see yourself some years from now. It inspires you to give your best. It shapes your understanding of why you are working here.


  1. Change :


Your mission statement may change, but it should still tie back to your core values, customer needs and vision.

As your organization evolves, you might feel tempted to change your vision. However, mission or vision statements explain your organization’s foundation, so change should be kept to a minimum.


  1. Developing a statement :


In mission statement it is What do we do today? For whom do we do it? What is the benefit? In other words, Why we do what we do? What, For Whom and Why?

In vision statement it is Where do we want to be going forward? When do we want to reach that stage? How do we want to do it?


Quality Objectives :


The purpose of quality objectives is to determine conformity to (customer and regulatory) requirements, and facilitate the effective deployment and improvement of the quality management system (QMS). Quality objectives must originate from the organization’s quality policy. Developing a QMS must be a strategic business decision and therefore top management must provide the necessary direction and leadership, starting with establishing the quality policy and objectives. Your quality policy provides top management’s vision on quality management for the organization. It provides the organization with focused direction, i.e. high level goals and objectives for quality management. Besides your own organization, requirements for quality policies and objectives (e.g., for product as well as product realization processes) may also come from the customer, regulatory bodies and industry standards or codes. Your quality policy and objectives must be consistent with the scope of your QMS and must complement other business objectives of your organization such as those related to growth, finance, profitability, the environment and occupational health and safety. Aggressive sales or marketing strategies must not be at the expense of quality management.




  1. 3. Explain the following:
  2. a) Kaizen: Kaizen, Japanese for “change for better”. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics,that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain. It has been applied in healthcare, psychotherapy, life-coaching, government, banking, and other industries.


By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world and is now being implemented in environments outside of business and productivity.


The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.


The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:


  • Standardize an operation and activities,
  • Measure the operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory).
  • Gauge measurements against requirements.
  • Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity.
  • Standardize the new, improved operations.
  • Continue cycle ad infinitum.


This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA.


  1. b) Benchmarking and its importance:Benchmarking is the process of comparing one’s business processes and performance metrics to industry bests or best practices from other companies. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost. In the process of best practice benchmarking, management identifies the best firms in their industry, or in another industry where similar processes exist, and compares the results and processes of those studied (the “targets”) to one’s own results and processes. In this way, they learn how well the targets perform and, more importantly, the business processes that explain why these firms are successful.


Benchmarking is used to measure performance using a specific indicator (cost per unit of measure, productivity per unit of measure, cycle time of x per unit of measure or defects per unit of measure) resulting in a metric of performance that is then compared to others.


Also referred to as “best practice benchmarking” or “process benchmarking”, this process is used in management and particularly strategic management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice companies’ processes, usually within a peer group defined for the purposes of comparison. This then allows organizations to develop plans on how to make improvements or adapt specific best practices, usually with the aim of increasing some aspect of performance. Benchmarking may be a one-off event, but is often treated as a continuous process in which organizations continually seek to improve their practices.






  1. 4. What is meant by Customer Focus? Describe in brief the concept of Customer satisfaction and Customer delight.

Customer satisfaction is essential for business success in today’s marketplace. Customer satisfaction refers to the extent to which customers are happy with the products and services provided by a business. Customer satisfaction levels can be measured using survey techniques and questionnaires.



Gaining high levels of customer satisfaction is very important to a business because satisfied customers are most likely to be loyal and to make repeat orders and to use a wide range of services offered by a business.


Customer focused


Studies carried out by companies like Argos and Cadburys have found very high levels of customer satisfaction. It is not surprising because these companies emphasise market research and marketing as the tools to find out what customers want. Knowing what your customer wants then makes it possible to tailor everything you do to pleasing the customers e.g. providing the goods that customers want, in the packaging that they want, in retail outlets which are convenient to use and well placed.


There are many factors which lead to high levels of customer satisfaction including:

Products and services which are customer focused and thence provide high levels of value for money.



Customer service giving personal attention to the needs of individual customers.


After sales service – following up the original purchase with after sales support such as maintenance and updating (for example in the updating of computer packages).


What is clear about customer satisfaction is that customers are most likely to appreciate the goods and services that they buy if they are made to feel special. This occurs when they feel that the goods and services that they buy have been specially produced for them or for people like them. This relates to a wide range of products such as razors that are designed for ease of use and good quality finish, petrol products that are environmentally friendly and customised to meet the needs of particular types of engines, etc.


Customer satisfaction is a marketing term that measures how products or services supplied by a company meet or surpass a customer’s expectation.


Customer satisfaction is important because it provides marketers and business owners with a metric that they can use to manage and improve their businesses.


In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 71 percent responded that they found a customer satisfaction metric very useful in managing and monitoring their businesses.


Here are the top six reasons why customer satisfaction is so important:


  • It’s a leading indicator of consumer repurchase intentions and loyalty
  • It’s a point of differentiation
  • It reduces customer churn
  • It increases customer lifetime value
  • It reduces negative word of mouth
  • It’s cheaper to retain customers than acquire new ones



  1. 5. Write Short notes on the following:
  2. a) Cost of Quality:When calculating the business case for a Six Sigma project, the cost of poor quality (COPQ), which is the cost caused through producing defects, is a commonly used concept. Within the total amount of quality cost, however, COPQ represents only a certain proportion. Costs do not result from only producing and fixing failures; a high amount of costs comes from ensuring that good products are produced. This article explains the cost of quality as a more comprehensive concept covering the cost of poor quality and the cost of good quality. In short, any cost that would not have been expended if quality were perfect contributes to the cost of quality.

Cost of Quality


As defined by Philip B. Crosby in his book Quality Is Free, the cost of quality has two main components: the cost of good quality (or the cost of conformance) and the cost of poor quality (or the cost of non-conformance). As Figure 1 shows:


  • The cost of poor quality affects:
    • Internal and external costs resulting from failing to meet requirements.
  • The cost of good quality affects:
    • Costs for investing in the prevention of non-conformance to requirements.
    • Costs for appraising a product or service for conformance to requirements.


  1. b) Productivity:Productivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process, i.e. output per unit of input.When all outputs and inputs are included in the productivity measure it is called total productivity. Outputs and inputs are defined in the total productivity measure as their economic values. The value of outputs minus the value of inputs is a measure of the income generated in a production process. It is a measure of total efficiency of a production process and as such the objective to be maximized in production process. Productivity measures that use one or more inputs or factors, but not all factors, are called partial productivities. A common example in economics is labor productivity, usually expressed as output per hour. At the company level, typical partial productivity measures are such things as worker hours, materials or energy per unit of production.


In macroeconomics the approach is different. In macroeconomics one wants to examine an entity of many production processes and the output is obtained by summing up the value-added created in the single processes. This is done in order to avoid the double accounting of intermediate inputs. Value-added is obtained by subtracting the intermediate inputs from the outputs. The most well-known and used measure of value-added is the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). It is widely used as a measure of the economic growth of nations and industries. GDP is the income available for paying capital costs, labor compensation, taxes and profits.



  1. 6. Define Quality Management System. Explain Quality Management Principles.


Answer:A quality management system (QMS) is a collection of business processes focused on achieving quality policy and quality objectives to meet customer requirements. It is expressed as the organizational structure, policies, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. Early systems emphasized predictable outcomes of an industrial product production line, using simple statistics and random sampling. By the 20th century, labour inputs were typically the most costly inputs in most industrialized societies, so focus shifted to team cooperation and dynamics, especially the early signalling of problems via a continuous improvement cycle. In the 21st century, QMS has tended to converge with sustainability and transparency initiatives, as both investor and customer satisfaction and perceived quality is increasingly tied to these factors. Of all QMS regimes, the ISO 9000 family of standards is probably the most widely implemented worldwide – the ISO 19011 audit regime applies to both, and deals with quality and sustainability and their integration.  Other QMS, e.g. Natural Step, focus on sustainability issues and assume that other quality problems will be reduced as result of the systematic thinking, transparency, documentation and diagnostic discipline.


Elements of a Quality Management System


  • Quality policy
  • Quality objectives
  • Quality manual
  • Organizational structure and responsibilities
  • Data Management
  • Processes – including purchasing
  • Product quality leading to Customer satisfaction
  • Continuous improvement including corrective and preventive action


Quality management principles:


The International Standard for Quality management (ISO 9001:2008) adopts a number of management principles that can be used by top management to guide their organizations towards improved performance.


Customer focus: Since the organizations depend on their customers, they should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and should try to exceed the expectations of customers.


Leadership: Leaders of an organization establish unity of purpose and direction of it. They should go for creation and maintenance of such an internal environment, in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization’s quality objective.


Involvement of people: People at all levels of an organization are the essence of it. Their complete involvement enables their abilities to be used for the benefit of the organization; however, the ultimate key decisions are made by the project manager.


Process approach: The desired result can be achieved when activities and related resources are managed in an organization as a process.


System approach to management: An organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its quality objectives are contributed by identifying, understanding and managing all interrelated processes as a system. Quality Control involves checking transformed and transforming resources in all stages of production process.


Continual improvement: One of the permanennfrani”/>


Factual approach to decision making: Effective decisions are always based on the data analysis and information.


Mutually beneficial supplier relationships: Since an organization and its suppliers are interdependent, therefore a mutually beneficial relationship between them increases the ability of both to add value.


These eight principles form the basis for the quality management system standard ISO 9001:2008.

BBA302 – Human Resource Management



PROGRAM Bachelor of Business Administration- BBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BBA302 – Human Resource Management
BK ID B1596
Credit & Marks 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS



Note – Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should beapproximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


  1. 1. Explain the various emerging concepts of Human Resource Management(HRM)


Answer:The world is changing dramatically and is in the process of complete transformation. The impossible things of yesterdays have become possible today and the impossible things of today will become possible tomorrow that is why it is said that change is the only permanent aspect of nature. The concept of self sufficient nations is losing importance and the concept of ‘global village’ is emerging. Management of organizations is bound to cope up with the radical transformation by developing new techniques and practices in global perspective after carefully analyzing the real challenges being faced by the professional managers.


Because of the continuous changing socio-economic, technological and political conditions the modern day managers as behavioral /operational scientists in the organization come across the following challenges:


  1. Challenge of globalization.
  2. Challenge of information age.
  3. Challenge of quality revolution.
  4. Challenge of managing workforce diversity.
  5. Empowerment of workers.
  6. Development of work ethics and culture.
  7. Corporate reorganization.


The trends in human resource industry are dynamic in nature which contributes towards to achievement of organization goals. Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based jobs have increased while low skilled jobs are decreasing. This calls for skill mapping through proper HRM initiatives.


Change is inevitable as said and that’s what Indian organizations are witnessing in management cultures, systems and working style. Alignment with global companies has forced Indian organization accept and incorporate change in every day life which makes role of HRM all the more important.


Some of the recent changes are as follows:

  • The policies of many companies have become people centric, traditionally the policies mainly focused on achievement of organizational goals showing negligence towards the human resource.
  • Attracting and retaining of human resource has become difficult as loyalty factor is losing its shine, today HR personnel have to motivate and design healthy career road map to make them stay in the company.
  • Human Resource Outsourcing is the new name in the industry to replace the redundant traditional HR department. Many HR outsourcing companies in India are already established and some are coming up to support increasing demand of corporate India.
  • With the increase of global job mobility, recruiting competent people is also increasingly becoming difficult, especially in India. Therefore organizations are also required to work out a retention strategy for the existing skilled manpower.
  • HR managers today are focusing on policies (trust, openness & equality), Motivation, Relations. Due to new trends in HR the manager should treat people as resources, reward them equitably and integrate their goals with that of the organizational goals through suitable HR policies.




  1. 2. What do you mean by Human Resource Planning? Explain the importance ofHuman Resource Planning


Answer:Human resource is the most important asset of an organisation. Human resources planning are the important managerial function. It ensures the right type of people, in the right number, at the right time and place, who are trained and motivated to do the right kind of work at the right time, there is generally a shortage of suitable persons.


The enterprise will estimate its manpower requirements and then find out the sources from which the needs will be met. If required manpower is not available then the work will suffer. Developing countries are suffering from the shortage of trained managers. Job opportunities are available in these countries but properly trained personnel are not available. These countries try to import trained skill from other countries.


In order to cope human resource requirements, an enterprise will have to plan in advance its needs and the sources. The terms human resource planning and manpower planning are generally used interchangeably. Human resource planning is not a substitute for manpower planning. Rather the latter is a part of the former i.e., manpower planning is integrated with human resource planning.


Importance of Human Resource Planning


  1. Well Defined Objectives:Enterprise’s objectives and goals in its strategic planning and operating planning may form the objectives of human resource planning. Human resource needs are planned on the basis of company’s goals. Besides, human resource planning has its own objectives like developing human resources, updating technical expertise, career planning of individual executives and people, ensuring better commitment of people and so on.


  1. Determining Human Resource Reeds:Human resource plan must incorporate the human resource needs of the enterprise. The thinking will have to be done in advance so that the persons are available at a time when they are required. For this purpose, an enterprise will have to undertake recruiting, selecting and training process also.


  1. Keeping Manpower Inventory:It includes the inventory of present manpower in the organisation. The executive should know the persons who will be available to him for undertaking higher responsibilities in the near future.


  1. Adjusting Demand and Supply:Manpower needs have to be planned well in advance as suitable persons are available in future. If sufficient persons will not be available in future then efforts should be .made to start recruitment process well in advance. The demand and supply of personnel should be planned in advance.


  1. Creating Proper Work Environment:Besides estimating and employing personnel, human resource planning also ensures that working conditions are created. Employees should like to work in the organisation and they should get proper job satisfaction.




  1. 3. What do you mean by Recruitment? Explain the factors affecting Recruitment.


Answer:Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs within an organization, either permanent or temporary. Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid positions, such as voluntary roles or training programmes.  Recruitment may be undertaken in-house by managers, human resource generalists and/or recruitment specialists. Alternatively, parts of the process may be undertaken by either public-sector employment agencies, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies.  The use of internet-based services and computer technologies to support all aspects of recruitment activity and processes has become widespread.


Internal recruitment refers to the process of a candidate being selected from the existing workforce to take up a new job in the same organization, perhaps as a promotion, or to provide career development opportunity, or to meet a specific or urgent organizational need. Advantages of this approach include the organization’s familiarity with the employee and their competencies (insofar as they are revealed in their current job), and their willingness to trust said employee.


Factors affecting Recruitment


There are a number of factors that affect recruitment.


  1. Internal Factors:The internal factors also called endogenous factors are the factors within the organisation that affect recruiting personnel in the organisation. Some of these are mentioned here.


  1. Size of the Organisation:The size of an organisation affects the recruitment process. Experi­ence suggests that larger organisations find recruitment less problematic than organisations with smaller in size.


  1. Recruiting Policy:The recruiting policy of the organisation i.e., recruiting from internal sources (from own employees) and from external sources (from outside the organisation) also affects recruitment process.


  1. Image of Organisation:Image of organisation is another internal factor having its influence on the recruitment process of the organisation.


  1. Image of Job:Just as image of organisation affects recruitment so does the image of a job also. Better remuneration and working conditions are considered the characteristics of good image of a job.


  1. External Factors:Like internal factors, there are some factors external to organisation which has their influence on recruitment process.


Some of these are given below:


  1. Demographic Factors:As demographic factors are intimately related to human beings, i.e., employees, these have profound influence on recruitment process.


  1. Labour Market:Labour market conditions i.e., supply and demand of labour is of particular importance in affecting recruitment process.


  1. Unemployment Situation:The rate unemployment is yet another external factor having its influence on the recruitment process.


  1. Labour Laws:There are several labour laws and regulations passed by the Central and State Governments that govern different types of employment.


  1. Legal Considerations:Another external factor is legal considerations with regard to employ­ment. Reservation of jobs for the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes (OBCs) is the popular example of such legal consideration.




  1. 4. Suppose you have joined as an HR Manager in an organization and you are askedto improve the organization’s Induction process. What are the strategies you willconsider in order to improve the Induction process?


Answer:An induction programme is the process used within many businesses to welcome new employees to the company and prepare them for their new role.  Induction training should, according to TPI-theory, include development of theoretical and practical skills, but also meet interaction needs that exist among the new employees. An Induction Programme can also include the safety training delivered to contractors before they are permitted to enter a site or begin their work. It is usually focused on the particular safety issues of an organisation but will often include much of the general company information delivered to employees.


Strategies to Improve the Induction process:


Encourage research: While you would hope that anyone applying for a job at your company will have done a little of their own research, make sure you are prompting your new hires to do some pre-reading before they even get to their induction. If they already know the basics of your company history and such, this will save a lot of time during the induction, freeing up time to spend on information more directly relevant to the work they will be doing.


Don’t overwhelm them: Even though there may be an enormous amount of information that the new hires will need to know, overwhelming them will make it harder for them to get a good grasp on any of it. Make sure you cover just those points that are vital to the work of the new hires, and keep in mind that you will be able to continue their education as they get stuck into their new positions.


Allow plenty of time: You will want to get your new hires working as soon as possible, though not before they know everything they need to be able to start doing a great job straight away.


Do it in stages:An effective way to do your inductions is to carry them out in stages, as this way your new hires will be working sooner.


Get feedback: Ask those who have been through your induction process for feedback on what they liked and didn’t like, as well as how effectively they felt it prepared them for working in their position. This kind of input is invaluable and can allow you to tweak your induction process and have it play a more useful role.


Involve your current staff: Rather than just having management involved in the induction process, get a few of your more personable staff members involved as well.



  1. 5. Discuss the features of an Incentive plan. Explain the characteristics of an effective

Incentive System


Answer:Features of an incentive plan: An ideal incentive plan must possess the following features:


  • Simplicity – The plan should be simple to understand and operate. Who should be able to calculate their wages without any difficulty?
  • Acceptability – It should be acceptable to workers as well as the employer.
  • Flexibility – The incentive plan should be flexible to introduce nice changes.
  • Quality – The plan should ensure the quality of the output. Workers should be discouraged to speed up the work to earn more wages at the cost of quality.
  • Stability – The plan should give a stable earnings over a period of time, minimum but adequate wage must be ensured.
  • Wide coverage – It should cover the maximum number of workers. 1 direct as well as indirect worker should be covered.
  • No restriction on earnings – The plan should not have any restriction earnings of workers. They should be allowed to earn as much as they can.
  • Investigation and evaluation – The plan should be based on scientific investigation and evaluation to produce good result. Standard time should fix on the basis of time and motion study.
  • Increasing output and lowering cost of production – It should aim increasing output and lowering cost of production.
  • Motivating to earn more – The plan should motivate the workers increase their efficiency and earn more.


The success of an incentive plan depends on the mutual cooperation a understanding between employer and employees.


Explain the characteristics of an Effective Incentive system


  1. Simple to Understand:The plan must be simple, easy to understand and to operate. It should involve least clerical work.
  2. Just and Equitable:Just and equitable system will be successful. A worker should be awarded for the work done by him.
  3. Attraction for Workers:Incentive payments should be sufficient to attract workers for improving their performance.
  4. Attainable Standards:The standards fixed under incentive plans be attainable with some extra efforts.
  5. Conducive to Health:A scheme should not tempt workers to overstrain them.
  6. Willingness of Workers:The scheme should have willing support of workers.
  7. Clarity of Objectives:Management should be clear about the goals to be achieved from the incentive schemes, It should be properly communicated to the workers also.
  8. Incentive for Quantity and Quality:The scheme should provide incentive for both quality and quantity of production. It should preferably be based on Time Study basis.
  9. Standardization:It should provide basis for all incentive schemes.
  10. Worker’s Incentive Earnings:Workers should not suffer in his earnings for reasons like improper tooling or faulty materials, which are beyond his control.
  11. Intimation of Efficiency:Workers Employees should be intimated of their past efficiency immediately.
  12. Right to Change Standards:Management must have the right to change standards when new methods and equipment are introduced in the working system.



  1. 6. Write a short note on the following:

a)Employee Counselling: Employee counselling is a psychological health care intervention which can take many forms. Its aim is to assist both the employer and employee by intervening with an active problem-solving approach to tackling the problems at hand.


The costs to industry and commerce each year associated with employees’ poor psychological health are enormous. A significant proportion of the Gross National Product (GNP) of industrialized countries is lost each year through ill-health, particularly in respect of stress-related illness.


Employee counselling gives individuals a valuable opportunity to work through problems and stresses in a strictly confidential and supportive atmosphere.


Counselling provides access to several basic forms of helping: giving information, direct action, teaching and coaching, advocacy, and providing feedback and advice, for example.


Typically, counselling involves the individual employee meeting with a psychological adviser, usually on a one-on-one basis. It is not uncommon for the individual employee and counsellor to meet once or twice a week for several weeks. However, the number and frequency of meetings required will depend upon the nature of the perceived difficulty and the nature of the intervention needed.


The focus of counselling sessions is to encourage discussion of personal and work-related difficulties. This is often followed by the adoption of an active problem-solving approach to tackle the problems at hand.


The specific aims of employee counselling are to:


  • Explore and find the key sources of difficulty (this step may include the use of diagnostic self-report tests similar to those available on our public, free test site: Stress Tests – Real Tests Online .com).


  • Review the individual’s current strategies and styles of coping.


  • Implement methods of dealing with the perceived problem, thereby alleviating the issue. Often, this step may involve also improving interpersonal relations at work and/or improving personal performance.


  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen strategies.


b)Selection: The human resources, or HR, selection process is important because of the production and performance value companies get by making good hires and the high costs of replacing employees following bad hires. These considerations are especially heightened for small businesses. HR has taken on a more strategic role in many early 21st century companies, with hiring and selection integral to that role.


Basics: The HR selection process is the strategically planned procedural approach developed by human resources professionals and implemented by organizations when recruiting, evaluating and hiring new employees.


Selection Criteria: One area of the selection process that is significant and sometimes under-valued is the development of screening tools. The ultimate goal of selection is to hire the candidate who is the best possible match for the job duties and the culture of the company.


Costs: Along with finding the best hire, cost efficiency and legal concerns are two main reasons why the HR selection process is so important.


Legal Concerns: The U.S. has become known as a litigious society, making protection against discrimination lawsuits for hiring processes critical. This is another reason to closely align selection tools and criteria with job expectations.