Legal Environment of Business

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NAME ………………………………..

BATCH……………………………….

ENTROLLMENT NO. ………….

 

Legal Environment of Business

 

Each assignment carries 25 marks

 

Answer any 2 questions from the following :

 

 

 

 

Q1 ) ( A ) Narrate Intellectual Property Rights.

 

Answer: Intellectual property (IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical, literary, and artistic works; inventions; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce, including copyrights, trademarks, patents, and related rights. Under intellectual property law, the holder of one of these abstract “properties” has certain exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention by which it is covered.

 

Intellectual property rights are a bundle of exclusive rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial. The former is covered by copyright laws, which protect creative works such as books, movies, music, paintings, photographs, and software and gives the copyright holder exclusive right to control reproduction or adaptation of such works for a certain period of time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q1 ) ( B ) The ‘ Doctrine of Indoor Management ‘is a silver lining to the strangers dealing with the company. – Comment.

 

Answer:The doctrine of Indoor management, popularly known as the Turquand’s rule initially arose some 150 years ago in the context of the doctrine of constructive notice. The rule of Doctrine of Indoor Management is conflicting to that of the principle of Constructive Notice. The latter seeks to protect the company against outsiders; the former operates to protect outsiders against the company. The rule of constructive notice is confined to the external position of the company and, therefore, it follows that there is no notice as to how

 

 

 

 

Q2 ) Can a joint stock company borrow money ? If so, how ? A joint stock company borrows money from Amex beyond its powers . Has Amex , the lender any remedy against the company and the directors of the company ?

 

Answer: The industrial corporation, our first object of inquiry, involves above all a change in the function of the industrial capitalist. For it converts what had been an occasional, accidental occurrence in the individual enterprise into a fundamental principle; namely, the liberation of the industrial capitalist from his function as industrial entrepreneur. As a result of this change the capital invested in a corporation becomes pure money capital so far as the capitalist is concerned. The money capitalist as creditor has nothing to do with the use which is made of his capital in production, despite the fact that this utilization is a necessary condition of the loan relationship.

 

This reduction of the share yield to the level of the rate of interest is a historical process which accompanies the development of stocks and

 

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT 3rd- SEM – SMU MBA SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS

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PM 0010 – INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT

BK ID – B1936

CREDIT & MARKS – 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

Q1. Write short notes on: 10

  Project charter

  Management by objectives in project management

  Project Management life cycle

  Contingency plan

 

 

Answer: Project Charter:  An activity can be executed effectively if its objectives and the method ofexecution are documented properly. In case of a project, this document is called project charter, which serves as a framework for executing activities. In simple words, a project charter refers to a formal document that mentions the various important aspects of a

 

 

Q2. Explain the steps in project selection. 10

Answer: Steps in project selection:

  1. Recognise a series of criteria to evaluate projects: This activity involves the identification of the criteria required for selecting an appropriate project from the available alternatives. Such criteria can be qualitative or quantitative. For example, if an FMCG company wants to develop a new product and has identified a few alternatives, then it might

 

 

 

Q3. Explain the UNIDO approach of SCBA (Social Cost Benefit Analysis). (Explain the 5 stages of UNIDO approach) 10

Answer: UNIDO approach: The UNIDO approach was first published in 1978 in the Guide to PracticalProject Appraisal by United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. This approach provides a complete outline of SCBA in developing countries. The UNIDO approach involves five stages, which are explained as follows:

 

 

Q4. What is contract administration? What are the inputs, tools and techniques used in contract administration to derive the outputs?  (Define contract administration,  List and describe the inputs of contract administration,  List and describe the tools and techniques of contract administration) 1, 4.5 , 4.5

Answer: Contract Administration: Contract administration ensures that the seller meets the contractualrequirements mentioned in the contract document efficiently. For this, the project manager and the contract administrator or the contract officer must work in coordination with

 

 

Q5.  1. Which are the sources of financing infrastructure projects?  2. What are the steps involved in designing a monitoring system to identify deviations in the overall performance of the project.

 

Answer: Sources of financing infrastructure projects:  It is true that the economic infrastructure of India is gradually evolving, but there is still a dearth of an adequate flow of long-term funds in India. This creates problems in stabilising the cash flow. In India, most of

 

 

 

Q6. What the activities involved in project termination process?

 

Answer: Activities involved in project termination process: Let us discuss the activities in the project termination process under the following points:

 

Unsettled project activities: It indicates the essential works of projects to be completed, before the closure of the project. The essential works refer to the incomplete portion of the

 

 

 

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PM0011 – PROJECT PLANNING AND SCHEDULING

 

Q1. Write short notes on: 10

  Hierarchy of organisational objectives

  Porter model a tool for identifying investment opportunities

  Design phase of project management life cycle

  Scope change

Answer: Hierarchy of organisational objectives: In an organisation, objectives follow a logical framework that is characterised by a hierarchy under different levels. The objective of an organisation is a complex process. Various issues are involved while setting the objectives; some of which are asfollows:

 

 

 

Q2. Budget Estimation of ABC Company Ltd.

ABC Company Ltd., established in 1985, is engaged in the manufacturing of leather accessories. Over the years, the company, which started out as a local firm, has made its mark as an international corporation. However, the company is still working as a traditional set up.

The high quality and durability of products have increased the demand of the products in the market. As the production of the organisation is being increased to meet the demand, the traditional set up is creating hurdles in the production process.

Organisation conflicts have arisen among the team members because of the unorganised hierarchical structure of the company, which is affecting the output of the organisation. Now that the management has decided to expand the business and opened up branches abroad, the company is facing two more problems. The first problem is in budgeting as the company is unfamiliar with international market conditions, strategy, and business policy while the second problem is conflicts at the time of team formation due to lack of experience of and exposure to multinational work culture, which has further affected the output of the company.

The company can estimate the budget through two methods, the bottom – up approach and the top – down approach. The bottom -up approach is generally followed by the MNCs as it is more accurate and reliable.

Mr.Parag has been appointed as the country head of the company and he has also been assigned the responsibility of incorporating the advanced project set up in the organisation.

Questions:

  1. Which project estimation approach should be used by the company and why?
  2. What type of project organisation structure should be used by the company and why?

 

(1. Argue the pros and cons of each project estimation approach, Recommend the project estimation approach that best suits the company, List the reasons for your decision by mentioning the data from the case) 2, 1, 2

 

(2. Describe the existing organisation structure

 

List the disadvantages of this structure, Recommend the project organisation structure that should be used by the company, Give you reasons for recommending this structure based on, the data given in the case and your knowledge on the FIVE organizational structures.) 1, 1, 1, 2

 

Answer:

 

1.

 

Estimates provide the basis for a business to secure work that clients wouldn’t award without a sense of the costs their projects can engender. two types of estimation approaches are used in organisation.

 

 

 

 

Q3. What is the importance of operational feasibility? Explain the factors that affect operational feasibility. (Mention the importance of operational feasibility, Discuss the FOUR factors that affect operational feasibility)  2, 8

 

Answer: Operating Feasibility: In the previous units, you have come to understand that feasibility study of aproject is very important from the point of view of an organisation as it enables an organisation to assess whether the proposed project is capable of achieving the desired goals and objectives. Operational feasibility is a part of project feasibility study, wherein

 

 

Q4. Write short notes on: 10

 

  Crashing

  Precedence diagramming method

  Resource allocation

  Scope creep

 

Answer: Crashing: In order to reduce the duration of a project, organisations often assign additional resources to the project task. This technique of assigning additional resources to reduce the project duration is termed as crashing. According to BusinessDictionary.com, schedule crashing is “Reducing the completion time of a project by sharply increasing manpower and/or other expenses.” According to

 

 

Q5. What do you understand by cost of quality? Elaborate on various types of costs of quality associated with a project. (Write the meaning of cost of quality, Briefly explain each types of costs of quality associated with a project) 1, 9

 

Answer: Cost of Quality (COQ): Cost of quality indicates the sum of conformance cost and non-conformancecost. Conformance means delivering products that meet the quality requirement of the customer; whereas, non-conformance indicate the products that are rejected for not complying with the quality norms of the customer. In other words, cost of quality can be referred to as the sum total of all costs incurred in ensuring conformance of the product to the quality requirements, assessing the product, and doing any re-work required to ensure such

 

.

 

Q6. Explain some of ISO standards that should be considered by the project manager during project execution. List the advantages of project management software. (Discuss the FOUR ISO standards that should be considered by the project manager during project execution, List any four advantages of project management software) 8, 2

 

Answer: FOUR ISO standards that should be considered by the project manager during project execution: International Organisation for Standardisation, whose abbreviated form is ISO, is located in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO was founded in the year 1947, and is one of the world’s largest developers of International Standards. It has a membership of more than 158 National Standards Institute of various countries across the world. ISO is responsible for

 

 

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PM 0012 – PROJECT FINANCE AND BUDGETING

BK ID – B1938

 

Q.1: Write short notes on: 10 (2.5 marks each)

  • Project cost estimation
  • Role of project sponsors
  • Trade credit
  • Importance of project budget

 

Answer: Project cost estimation:The cost of the project is the money required to complete the project. Cost estimation is very important for the planning and execution of any project sothat appropriate finances can be allocated at the right time. However, at times, the overall cost may go beyond the budgeted cost due to project

 

 

Q.2: Answer the following questions:

  1. What is a Letter of Intent (LOI)? What is its purpose?
  2. What are the basic features of EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) contracts? Give any 4 advantages of entering into a EPC contract?

 

Answer: Define LOI: A Letter Of Intent (LOI) may be defined as an agreement between two or more parties to do business together before signing the contract. It signifies an intention to do the business at later date. It is the

 

 

Q.3: Explain the different key project documents.

A.Description of key project documents.10 (2 marks each)

 

Answer: Description of key project documents: These documents are as follows:

Business case: It is a kind of agreement or contract or a decision analysis report which signifies that the project has been approved for commencement. It is managed between two parties for offering of services. In the

 

 

Q.4: Write short notes on:

  • Developments in financing of construction projects in India.
  • Importance of cost of capital in project selection.
  • Principles employed by organisations to manage working capital.

 

Answer: Developments in financing of construction projects in India: Indian construction is in a nascent stage as compared to other developed countries, such as US or UK. India lacks in basic constructions, such as highways, airports and seaports. The Indian government is striving to address the problem by encouraging the

 

 

Q5. What are the problems associated with BOOT projects.( Explanation of the main problems associated with BOOT projects, Conclusion ) 9, 1

 

Answer: Problems in BOOT Projects: Although BOOT model is beneficial for certain projects, there are many risksand problems associated with it and may act as a constraint in theimplementation of these projects. The main problems associated with BOOTprojects are as follows:

 

Q6. Explain the different types of management contracts (a type of PPP). (List the types of management contracts, Explain each type of management contract) 1, 9

 

Answer:Management contracts: It is a type of PPP in which the public sectorenters into an agreement with the private sector for managing a whole or apart of a public enterprise. In such a contract, the ownership is retained bythe public sector. Management contract allows the public sector to takeadvantage of the skills and expertise of the private sector in labour management and procurement, service designing, operational control, etc.Under this

 

 

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PM 0013 – MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES IN PROJECTS

BK ID – B1939

CREDIT AND MARKS – 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

Q1. Write short notes on: 10

  Project resources

  Need for human resource management

  Project manager

Answer: Project Resources: Project resources are the materials and assets that are required to execute a project. These can be human resources, funds, machineries, equipment, and physical facilities. A project plan cannot be put into action if the resources are allocated and utilised properly. Therefore, a project manager should ensure sufficient allocation and efficient utilisation of projectresources. Let us

 

 

Q2. What are the major challenges in developing an efficient project team? 10

Answer: Challenges in developing a project team: When a team of diverse personalities is formed, it brings challenges such as communication gap and relationship problems Therefore, a project manager identify the challenges and resolve them efficiently before they start disturbing the project. Let us discuss the

 

 

Q3:Write short notes on: 10 (2.5 marks each)

  • Skills required by a project manager
  • Delphi technique of estimating manpower requirements of projects
  • Importance of leadership in project management
  • Goal setting theory

 

ANSWER: Skills required by a project manager: While running a project, the project manager needs to handle various resources, information, tools etc. and apply analytical skills to make efficient and effective utilisation of the situation. Therefore, it is important that organisations hire project managers who possess certain leadership skills and competencies to carry out the assigned responsibilities

 

 

Q4. What measures would you follow to deal with poor performers? (List the measures you would follow to deal with poor performers, Explain the reason why you choose these measures, Explain the various measures you would follow to deal with poor performers and, Analyse how these measures will improve the performance) 1, 1, 4, 4

 

Answer: Dealing with Poor Performers in a Project Team: In a project where multiple people work on different tasks, it may not possible for everyone to meet or exceed the desired performance standard. Sometimes, there may be employees whose performance level is below, average or poor. They may not

 

 

Q5:Explain various types of collective bargaining. (Explanation of four types of collective bargaining) 10 (2.5 marks each)

 

 

ANSWER: Collective bargaining develops employees’ responsibility towards the society and limits exploitation of labour during project operations. It can be of four types as

 

Q6: Discuss the concept of issue logs. (Explain what is an issue log , Why should project managers solve issues, give examples , What details does an issue log contain , Explain how this issue log helps a project manager)1, 2, 5, 2

 

ANSWER: Issue log: During the execution of a project, a project manager faces several issues that may impact the project significantly. An issue is a problem, gap, inconsistency or conflict that may arise unexpectedly during a project. These issues may be related to team members, suppliers, distributers,

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IB 4th SEM – SMU MBA SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS

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IB0015- Foreign Trade of India

BK ID-B1908

CREDIT & MARKS–4 CREDITS, 60 MARKS

 

 

Q1. Discuss the Heckscher-Ohlin theory of international trade. 10

Answer: The Modern Theory of international trade has been advocated by Bertil Ohlin. Ohlin has drawn his ideas from Heckscher’s General Equilibrium Analysis. Hence it is also known as Heckscher Ohlin (HO) Model / Theorem / Theory. According to Bertil Ohlin, trade arises due to the differences in the relative prices of different

 

Q2. What is the role of services exports in recent years in India’s composition of trade? Discuss. (India and services trade) 10

Answer: Composition of Exports: The composition of exports shows a perceptible shift in this decade from light manufactures to heavy manufactures and petroleum crude and products. The share of textiles and ready-made garments (RMG) has fallen dramatically by 11.1 percentage points in 2006-07 over 2000-01 followed by gems and

 

 

Q3. Discuss the trends in the principal imports of India in the last 5 years. 10

Answer:

Imports in India increased to 35740 USD Million in March of 2015 from 28392.30 USD Million in February of 2015. Imports in India averaged 6225.45 USD Million from 1957 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 45281.90 USD Million in May of 2011 and a record low of 117.40 USD Million in August of 1958. Imports in India is

 

 

Q4. Write short notes on India’s trade with: 5, 5

  1. LAC region
  2. Africa

Answer:

  1. LAC region:

Even as India’s trade with the LAC region has grown at 25 per cent annually over the last decade, touching $ 46 billion in 2012-13, bilateral investments remain at a relatively low level. While the region received only 4 per cent of India’s outward FDI, investments from LAC region in India are still low. Now is the time to change that. India,

 

Q5. What are Special Economic Zones? Write one sentence each on any 5 SEZs in India.

(Meaning and role of SEZ, 5 SEZ) 5, 5

Answer.

Special Economic Zones

A special economic zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that is designed to export goods and provide employment. SEZs may be exempt from laws regarding taxes, quotas, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)-bans, labour laws and other restrictive laws in order to make the goods manufactured in the SEZ at a globally competitive price.

 

Q6. What is the need and role of Focus Market Scheme? Discuss in detail.

(Focus market scheme) 10

Answer.

Need and role of Focus Market Scheme

The objective of the scheme is to offset the high freight cost and other disabilities faced in accessing select foreign markets as to enhance the export competitiveness in these markets. The scheme allows duty credit scrip @ 3% of the FOB value of exports irrespective of the product they export to notified countries as in Appendix 37C of

 

 

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IB0017 –International Business Environment and International Law

BK ID-B1909

CREDIT &  MARKS-4 CREDITS, 60 MARKS

 

Q1. Discuss the pros and cons of internationalization. (Pros, cons) 5, 5

Answer: Pros Cons Increasing the annual net profit or cash High initial investments are necessary, for flows by transferring competitive example, for a distribution system advantages to a foreign market Using foreign sales potentials to achieve Costly product diversification due to, for volume effects by increasing the quantity example, technological differences or a different structure of demand can be a prerequisite for a successful foreign market

 

 

Q2. Explain the relationship between law, business and international law. How isinternational law considered to be mixed in nature?

(Relationship, International law) 6, 4

Answer.

Relationship between law, business and international law

 

International business and economic law involves the public international law and domestic law applicable to international business transactions between private parties, as well as the public international law applicable to trade and investment relations between or among states. The concerns of international economic and business law

 

 

 

Q3. Discuss the laws related to regulation and promotion of foreign trade in India. (Laws regulating foreign trade) 10

 

Answer: Regulation: To ensure a full disclosure of all information relating to a franchise companyprior to a franchisee taking on the business, franchise regulations have been put in place by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). While the disclosure process is lengthy and should always include an experienced franchise attorney, there are basic guidelines to the regulations that a small businessowner should be aware of when considering franchising options. In addition to the FTC rules, though, many states have implemented their own individual franchise rules and minimum disclosure requirements. Their policies all incorporate the FTC regulations as

 

 

Q4. Write short notes on: 5, 5

 

  1. Export cartels
  2. Customs valuation

 

Answer:

  1. Export cartels:

 

Export cartels are exempted from the competition laws of most countries. While some scholars and several WTO members have recently condemned such cartels, others have argued that they allow efficiency gains that actually promote competition and trade. This paper examines the various issues involved, with special reference to developing countries and to recent discussions on trade and competition policy. After summarising the contending views on export cartels, and also the scanty theoretical literature on the subject, it reviews the treatment of such

 

 

 

Q5. How does the TRIPs agreement protect IPRs? What are the 7 intellectual properties defined in TRIPs?

(TRIPS and IPRs, intellectual properties)5,5

Answer.

TRIPs agreement protect IPRs

 

The TRIPS agreement introduced intellectual property law into the international trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property to date. In 2001, developing countries, concerned that developed countries were insisting on an overly narrow reading of TRIPS, initiated a round of talks that resulted in the Doha Declaration. The Doha declaration is a WTO statement that clarifies the scope of TRIPS, stating for example that TRIPS can and should be interpreted in light of the goal “to promote

 

 

Q6. Which are the various kinds of investment treaties and how do theyfunction?

(Investment treaties meaning, Kinds,Function)2,4,4

Answer.

Investment treaties

An investment treaty is an agreement made between two or more sovereigns that safeguards investments made in the territory of the signatory countries. Sovereigns purportedly promulgate these investment treaties as “a means to satisfy the need to promote and protect fo

 

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IB0018 – Export-Import Finance

BK ID-B1910

CREDIT & MARKS-4 CREDITS, 60 MARKS

 

Q1. Discuss any 5 trade financing schemes by EXIM bank in brief. (5 Trade financing schemes) 10

Answer: EXIM Bank of India: Export-Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank) was set up in March 1981 under the Export-Import Bank of India Act, 1981 for the following purposes:

 

  1. For providing financial assistance to exporters
  2. For providing financial assistance to importers

iii. For functioning as the financial institution for co-ordinating the working of institutions engaged in financing

 

 

Q2. What is the need for export finance in India? Write a short note on export financing facilities in India.

(Need for export finance, Financing facilities) 5, 5

Answer.

Need for export finance

Export finance refers to financial assistance extended by banks and other financial institutions to businesses for the shipping of products outside a country or region. Export financing enables MSMEs to expand its reach to a global audience. Export financing is a major component of successful export transactions. Exporters need finance for

 

Q3. As an exporter, what benefits you can get from Post shipment finance scheme? Discuss the types of post shipment credits.

(Post shipment finance, types) 7, 3

Answer.

Post shipment finance scheme

Post shipment finance may be defined as a loan or advance granted bybanks to their exporter clients after the shipment of goods till the date ofreceipt of payment from overseas buyer or credit opening bank. It is a shortterm credit provided by banks to exporters to meet their working capitalrequirements after the shipment of goods.When

 

 

Q4. Write short notes on:

  1. a) Export credit Guarantee Corporation
  2. b) Foreign exchange risk

(Meaning and role of ECGC, Meaning of foreign exchange risk) 5, 5

Answer.

  1. a) Export credit Guarantee Corporation

Almost all countries of the world have set up organizations in their countriesto provide credit risk insurance facilities to their exporters. In India,Government of India has set up ECGC to cover export credit risk.In 1957, Government of India set up the Export Risk Insurance Corporationof India. In 1964, the name was changed to

 

 

Q5. There are several factors that affect the exchange rate of a country. Explain any 5 determinants of exchange rate. (5 Determinants of exchange rate) 10

 

Answer: Exchange rate : is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. Exchange rates play a vital role in a country’s level of trade, which is critical to most every free market economy in the world. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched, analyzed and governmentally manipulated economic measures. But exchange rates matter on a smaller scale as well: they impact the real return

 

Q6. What is custom duty? Discuss its types.

(Meaning, types) 4, 6

Answer.

Custom duty

A tax levied on imports (and, sometimes, on exports) by the customs authorities of a country to raise state revenue, and/or to protect domestic industries from more efficient or predatory competitors from abroad.

Customs duty is

 

 

 

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IB0019

.

Q1. Logistical development varies from country to country. Discuss the role of global logistics operator. 10

Answer: Logistics: According to a new World Bank Group survey on trade logistics the capacity of countries to efficiently move goods and connect manufacturers and consumers with international markets is improving around the world, but much more is needed to spur faster economic growth and help firms benefit from

 

 

Q2. Analyze and discuss market-accommodation flow with respect to operational, planning and control and behavioral context.

(Analysis of market accommodation flow in: Operational, Planning and control, Behavioral context) 4, 3, 3(10 marks)

Answer:

Market accommodation flow, which reflects post-sales service administration and reverse logistics, including product recalls and recycling. Market accommodation also enables effective supply chain planning through exchanging

 

Q3. Write short notes on: 5, 5

  1. a) Seaports in transportation infrastructure
  2. b) Airports in transportation infrastructure

Answer: Airports in transportation infrastructure: is an option that many governments prefer. Governments have a role in ensuring that competition law and policy are working adequately and that the ATI market structure is consistent with achieving the governments’ overall development objectives. When govern- ments are considering addressing performance problems in ATI, it is important that they are encouraged to examine the trade-offs between maximizing the competition between airports that are currently government owned versus any fiscal and regional development benefits from continuation of the

 

 

Q4. How is ocean liner conferences formed? What are the types of liner associations?

(Ocean liner conference-5 marks, Types of liner conference-5 marks) 10 marks

Answer.

Ocean liner conference

 

A Liner Conference can be defined as “a group of two or more vessel operating carriers which provide internationa liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular route or routes within specific geographical limits and which has an agreement or arrangement within the framework of which they operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions with respect to the

 

 

Q5. What are logistics intermediaries? Explain the different types of intermediaries and their strategic approaches.

(Meaning-3 marks, Functions-3 marks, Types-4 marks)10 marks

Answer. Meaning

Logistics intermediary: A party who arranges shipping, warehousing, distribution and other goods movement on behalf of goods providers and shipping companies.

Function of Intermediaries

  • Distribution of goods takes place by means of channels, and the intermediaries are the independent

 

 

Q6. Describe the various measures that must be taken while transporting the hazardous materials.

(A Safety measures for hazardous materials)10 marks

Answer.

These 11 rules are presented in no particular order. They are all top priorities for chemical handlers. However, feel free to rearrange them in whatever order you think is best for your workplace, your workers, and your material

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BBA 4TH SEM – SMU MBA SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS

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BBA404- SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

Credit-2

Book ID-B1715

Max. Marks-30

Q1. Write short notes on the following:

  1. a) Various forms of organisation
  2. b) Competitive strategies

(a) Various forms of organisation, b) Competitive strategies)5,5

Answer.

  1. a) Various forms of organisation

Small business may operate under any one of several forms of organisation. These are:

1)      Sole proprietorship Here the owner and manager is the same person, who will have the responsibility of taking care of each and every aspect of the business. This is a common business structure. With this structure, operation is

 

 

Q2. What is meant by working capital? Explain the various sources of working capital.

(Meaning of working capital, Explanation of various sources of working capital)2,8

Answer.

Working capital

Working capital (abbreviated WC) is a financial metric which represents operating liquidity available to a business, organization or other entity, including governmental entity. Along with fixed assets such as plant and equipment,

 

Q3. Describe the following:

(a) Capacity management

(b) Managerial activities

((a) Description of Capacity management, (b) Description of Managerial activities)5,5

Answer.

(a) Capacity management

Capacity refers to the output the plant can produce in a time period. Building capacity in excess of demand requirement will result in blocking up of funds in idle capacity. Too short a capacity will force the business to forego orders resulting in customer dissatisfaction. Consequently, it will sap the morale of the marketing staff. It is

 

 

 

BBA 403 – International marketing

BK ID-B1714

CREDIT & MARKS-4 CREDITS, 60 MARKS

 

Q.1. Explain the meaning, need and significance of international marketing. (Meaning, Need, significance) 3, 4, 3

ANS:

 

Meaning of International Marketing

 

Before trying to understand the definition of international marketing let us recapitulate the definition of “Marketing” as given by Mr. Kotler, an authority on the subject. According to Mr. Kotler, “Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want

 

 

Q2 What are the elements of culture? Explain.

(Elements of culture)

Answer:

Broadly, culture constitutes five elements called the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs and thought processes as referred in the foregoing

 

 

Q3 Assessing political environment plays an important role in taking business decisions.

Discuss this statement. What risks could arise due to political environment?

(Discuss the statement, Political risk)

Answer:

 

Assessing the political environment always plays a very important role in arriving at any business decision. Foreign firm operations are drastically affected due to certain laws and regulations directed by local, regional and/or central government.

Further, assessing the political situation and climate of the home country is much easier compared to the one in a

 

 

 

Q.4. Explain the meaning and need of secondary research in international marketing. (Meaning, need) 3, 7

ANS:

 

Secondary Research

 

As the name indicates, secondary data is the data collected by somebody earlier for their use. Secondary research is carried out first. This research is conducted by collecting data from the following

 

Q.5. What is the mode of entry adopted by McDonalds? Discuss the various modes of entry in international business. (Mode of entry by McDonalds, Modes of entry) 3, 7

ANS:

Mode of entry adopted by McDonalds

Mcdonald is the world famous fast food restaurant. Mcdonald’s from its day first has always tried to have strong

 

Q6 Write short notes on:

  1. a) Product diversification
  2. b) Product customization

[a) meaning and benefits of product diversification b) meaning and benefits of product customization] 5, 5

Answer:

Product Diversification

Product diversification is a conscious activity undertaken by business firms where new products are added to the existing portfolio of product/s to exploit the additional sales opportunities available in the market.

 

The International Marketer secures a marketing edge over competitors by diversification of products in which

 

 

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BBA 402 & MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

BK ID B1713 CREDIT & MARKS 4 Credits, 60 marks

 

 

  1. No 1 Explain the importance of Management Accounting and Need of Management Accounting.

(Explanation of Management accounting, Need of Management Accounting)  7 +3 =10

Answer: Importance

Management accounting is very helpful to management in every field of activity. It assists the management in the performance of the various managerial functions of planning, controlling, co-

 

 

Q2. Explain the various steps in Budgetary Control. Advantages of Budgetary Control.

 (Steps in Budgetary Control, Advantages of Budgetary Control)  4 +6 =10

Answer: The various steps included in the budgetary control system are:

  1. Determination of organisational objectives – Budget is a tool for implementing the organisational

 

 

Q3. What is absorption costing? Explain the features of absorption costing. Write the differences between absorption and marginal costing.

(Absorption costing, Features of absorption costing, Difference between absorption and marginal costing) 3 +3 +4 =10

Answer:

Absorption costing: Absorption costing is a technique or practice of ascertaining the cost per unit of goods produced or service rendered. Absorption costing is the practice of charging all costs, both fixed

 

 

Q4. Explain the three types of financing in working capital.

Raw material: Rs.80 per unit, labour: Rs.30 per unit; overheads: Rs.60 per unit, selling price/unit Rs.200: raw materials: one month, work in progress: 15 days, finished goods: 1 month; creditors: 1 month; debtors: two months, Wages: 45 days; overheads: 1 month; ¼ of production is sold in cash. Desired cash balance is Rs.3,65,000. Production per annum is 1,04,000 units. Estimate the working capital.

(Explanation of financing of working capital, Estimation of working capital) 3 +7 =10

Answer:

 

 

Q5.

 

                Use the following information to prepare:                                                                                                         

                                A schedule of changes in working capital.                                                           

                                A funds flow statement of Sahana & Co.                                                                                             

                                                                                                Balance Sheet of Sahana & Co.                                 

                                                                                                                                                               

                Liabilities            31.03.2010                           31.03.2011                           Assets   31.03.2010           31.03.2011               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Capital  1,85,000               2,10,000               Goodwill (at      60,000   60,000                  

                                P&L        1,47,800               1,76400 cost)      1,85000 2,20,000                              

                                account                1,20,000               90,000   Land      47,400   52,400                  

                                Bank      40,000   68,000   andbuilding       19,400   19,400                  

                                loan       1,40,000               1,22,000               Plant     82,600   72,400                  

                                Bills       20,000   18,000   andmachinery   1,20,000               1,28,000                              

                                payable                                                Furniture             80,000   72,100                  

                                Sundry                                  Inventory            50,000   48,300                  

                                Creditors                                             Sundry  8,400     11,800                  

                                Provision                                             Debtors                                                               

                                for                                          Bills                                                      

                                taxation                                               Receivable                                                        

                                                                                Bank                                                     

                                                                                Cash                                                     

                                                                                                                                                               

                                                6,52,800               6,84,400                                               6,52,800               6,84,400                              

                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                               

                Schedule of changes in working capital                 5                              10                          

                Fund flow statement of Sahana & Co                     5                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                               

 

Answer: Statement of changes in working capital from 01.04.2010 to 31.03.2011.

Statement of Changes

 

 

Q6 Give the meaning of dividend policy. Explain the significance of dividend decision and types of dividend policy.

( Meaning of Dividend policy, Significance of dividend decision, Types of dividend policy) 3 +2 +5 =10

Answer: Meaning of Dividend Policy:

Dividend policy is the policy drafted by companies regarding the amount to be paid to shareholders in the form of

 

 

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BBA401- E-COMMERCE

BK ID B1712 CREDIT 4 MARKS 60

 

Q.No 1 a. Amazon is the world’s online marketplace® for all the books, enabling trade on a local, national and international basis. With a diverse and passionate community of individuals and small businesses, Amazon offers an online platform where millions of items are traded each day. Mention and explain the various opportunities offered by ecommerce for businesses

  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of eCommerce?

( a. Listing the opportunities and explaining b. Listing the main advantages, Listing the disadvantages) 3+3+4=10

Answer:

 

  1. a) E-Commerce Opportunities offered by eCommerce for Businesses:

 

 

 

Q2 a. The TCP/IP reference model is the network model used in the current Internet architecture. This model is derived from the OSI model and they are relatively same in nature. Explain the different characteristics of Gateways in the TCP/IP reference model with a neat diagram

  1. Write short note on Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) with example

(a. Diagram Characteristics b. Explanation on HTML Example )3+3+3+1=10

Answer:

a)

Characteristics of Gateways

  • Gateway routers are used to connect dissimilar LANs and perform all the functions of bridges and routers. It operates as all seven layers of the OSI Reference Model.
  • Gateways provide full protocol conversion from one proprietary LAN technology to another.
  • Gateway uses

 

 

Q3 Hanson websites are built to work for your business and are built on the concept of intelligent website. An intelligent website is more than just a brochure on the web. It allows you to edit the website yourself through a Content Management System (CMS). What is the need for an intelligent website?

(Listing the steps Explanation) 4 +6 = 10

Answer:

Step 1: Basic Web traffic analysis

Before starting any Web activity, one first needs to analyse the Web traffic. This type of data provides a

 

Q4. When a data is sent across the network it is encrypted and arranged in a way that even if there is a diversion in the flow of data should not leak the data. At the reception it is decrypted and actual data is obtained. Explain the different methods of encryption technique.

(Listing, Explanation each of them, Diagram for each of them) 1+5+4=10

Answer:

There are three types of cryptography or methods of encryption:

  • Secret key or private key or symmetric key cryptography
  • Public key or asymmetric key cryptography

 

 

Q5. Explain the different categories of electronic payment system in detail

(Listing the types and sub types, Explanation)3 +7  =10

Answer: There are three main categories of EPS.

1.Banking and Financial Payments

2.

 

 

Q6. We know that there are various internet services which help us to make the use of network efficiently. Being a regular user of the various services without probably knowing the technical aspects explain those services in details with an example.

(Listing the various services, Explanation, Examples) 2+6 +2 = 10

Answer

Services that are

 

 

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BANKING 3RD SEM – SMU MBA SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS

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MA0045 & BANKING MANAGEMANT

 

 

Qus:1 Banking accepts deposits of money from public for the purpose of lending and investment. Based on this explain the principles of banking and payment system constituent.

  • Explanation of principles of banking
  • Explanation of payment system constituent

Answer:

Explanation of principles of banking:

The five principles of banking on which a bank

 

Qus:2 To reach a destination, a definite plan is required. Business planning creates definite strategies. Give the introduction of business planning and targeting. Write down steps involved in the process of business planning and targeting and explain the planning tools and methods put in analysis.

  • Introduction of business planning and targeting
  • Steps involved in the process of business planning and targeting
  • Planning methods and tools

Answer:

Introduction of business planning and targeting:

Business planning is a process of creating definite strategies in line with the mission or the goal of a bank. The process of business planning covers each aspect of operation and focuses on all functions of the bank. The

 

Qus:3 Banks accepts deposits and deposits are repayable to the depositors through the proceeds of investment and loans. You are supposed to explain the need for credit policy with bank rates. Also explain the credit process.

  • Explanation of need for credit with bank rates
  • Explanation of credit process

Answer:

Explanation of need for credit with bank rates:

The commercial banks are required to provide credit for productive purposes so as to support the growth of the national economy. Before nationalisation, bank’s credit was concentrated on large business houses as it was controlled by them. The bank funds were locked in big houses, and they suffered from high credit risk. The commercial banks were compelled to extend a minimum level of credit

 

 

Qus:4 Write short notes on:

  1. a) Interest rate risk
  2. b) On-balance sheet adjustment
  3. c) Off-balance sheet adjustment

Answer:

Explanation of interest rate risk:

Interest rate risks affect the market value of equity of a bank and it’s NII. The focus to increase the NII will be addressed by banks from a short-term view and the improvement of market value of equity from a long-

 

Qus:5 What do you understand by forfaiting? Explain on Forfaiting an export finance option. Write the benefits of exporters from forfaiting.

  • Meaning of forfaiting
  • Explanation of forfaiting an export finance option
  • Explanation of benefits of exporters from forfaiting

Answer:

Meaning of forfeiting:

Forfaiting is a mechanism of financing exports by discounting export receivables, evidenced by bills of exchange or promissory notes, with longterm maturities, on a fixed rate basis (discount) up to 100% of the contract value.

Explanation of forfaiting an export finance option:

 

Qus:6 Explain Automated Teller Machine (ATMs), write the benefits of ATM. Explain the benefits of leveraging technology.

  • Explanation of ATM
  • Benefits of ATM
  • Benefits of leveraging technology

Answer:

Explanation of ATM:

ATMs have been introduced by all the banks in India. ATMs perform some of the banking functions thereby making it convenient for the customers to do certain banking transactions without even visiting a bank. ATMs of the banks have been placed in important locations across

 

 

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MA0036 & FINANCIAL SYSTEM & COMMERCIAL BANKING

BK ID-B1770

CREDITS-4

MARKS-60

 

 

Q1. Financial system is a set of inter-related economic activities working together to achieve economic development. Explain the significance, characteristics, need and importance of financial system.

(Significance of financial system, Characteristics of financial system, Need and importance of financial system) 3, 3, 4

Ans.

Significance of financial system

The term financial system is a set of inter-related economic activities working together to achieve economic development. It includes different markets, institutions, instruments, services and mechanisms that influence the generation of savings, investment, capital formation and growth. According to Robinson, the primary function of the

 

Q2. Money market is one of the type of financial market. Explain the features of money market and write the constituents of money market.

(Features of money market, Constituents of money market) 5, 5

Ans.

Features and constituents of money market:

Money market covers financial assets which are close substitutes for money and the money as well.

The money market performs the following main functions:

  • To provide a method and system to fulfil the demand and supply of short-term funds.
  • To provide a tool to manage the liquidity and interest rate in the economy.
  • To provide acceptable access to investors and borrowers of short-term funds to accomplish their borrowing necessities and making investments at an efficient market

 

Q3. Write short notes on:

  1. a) Commercial Banks
  2. b) Cooperative Banks
  3. c) Post office

(Explanation of commercial banks, Explanation of cooperative banks, Post office) 3, 4, 3

Ans.

  1. a) Commercial Banks

Commercial banks are the largest financial intermediaries. The intermediation is the process of linking savers as well as investors and those who make use of funds for developing their business. Banking institutions in India have played a predominant role in augmenting savings from the public and helping the economy in channelising the same for

 

Q4. The business of commercial banks deals with Liability products and asset products. Explain the important features of liability products.

(Important features of liability products and explanation of all) 10

Answer:

 

Q5. Explain the Chore committee recommendations and also write about the challenges and issues of financial reforms.

(Chore committee recommendations, Challenges and issues of financial reforms) 5, 5

Answer:

Chore Committee Recommendations:

 

The quality of lending improved considerably but the cash credit system continued to pose few difficulties. Bifurcation of working capital limit in two parts as demand loan and a fluctuating cash credit component, as suggested by Tandon Group, was not done by many banks. It was, therefore, considered necessary by Reserve Bank to review the system of cash credit in all its aspects and for this purpose a ‘Working Group’ headed by Sh. K. B. Chore was appointed in 1979. The terms of reference to the

 

 

Q6. Explain the perspectives in retail banking and perspectives in Regulation.

 

(Explanation of perspectives in retail banking, Explanation of perspectives in regulation) 5, 5

Ans.

Perspectives in retail banking:

The growth is very hard to find as the revenue of the business is always under intense pressure and due to the increasing cost in every business. The following four forces are proving this point:

  • There is more unemployment problem due to

 

 

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MA0037 & BANKING RELATED LAWS & PRACTICES

 

Qus:1 Bank accepts different types of deposits and based on this you will have to answer these. Explain the acceptance of deposits. Write about the maintenance of cash reserves.

  • Explanation of acceptance of deposits
  • Explanation of maintenance of cash reserves.

Answer:

Explanation of acceptance of deposits:

Banks accept different types of deposits. The nature of deposit accepted could be either time deposit or demand deposit. Time deposits are payable after the expiration of the period for which

 

Qus:2 What do you understand by contract of guarantee? Write the differences between contract of indemnity and contract of guarantee. Explain the essential features of a contract of guarantee.

  • Meaning of contract of guarantee
  • Differences between contract of indemnity and contract of guarantee
  • Essential features of a contract guarantee

Answer:

Meaning of contract of guarantee:

Contract of guarantee is a contract to perform the promise, or discharge the liability, of a third person in case of his default. The person who gives the guarantee is called the ‘surety’, the person in respect of whose default the guarantee is given is called the ‘principal debtor’ and the

 

 

Qus:3 Explain the appointment of adjudicating authority, procedure for adjudication Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA). Write the differences between contravention and compounding.

  • Explanation of adjudicating authority
  • Explanation of procedure for adjudication
  • Differences between contravention and compounding

Answer:

Explanation of adjudicating authority:

For the purpose of adjudication under Section 13, the Central Government may, by an order published in the Official Gazette, appoint as many officers of the Central Government as it may think fit, as the adjudicating authorities for holding an inquiry in the manner prescribed after giving the person alleged to have committed contravention under Sec 13, against whom a

 

 

Qus:4 Explain the establishment of consumer disputes redressal agencies and write about composition of district forums and Jurisdiction of district forum.

  • Explanation of consumer disputes redressal agencies
  • Explanation of composition of district forums
  • Explanation of jurisdiction of district forum

Answer:

Explanation of consumer disputes redressal agencies:

For resolving and dealing with the consumer complaints, different forums are established at district level, state level and national level. The compositions of these forums have been laid down differently. They have different jurisdictions, powers and they have to work and deal with

 

 

Qus:5 Write the purposes of disciplinary sanctions for breach of the code. Write the internal procedure guidance. Give the differences between banking ombudsman and Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCBSI).

  • Explanation of breach of code
  • Explanation of internal procedure guidance
  • Difference between banking ombudsman and BCBSI

Answer:

Explanation of breach of code:

Failure to comply with or fulfil any commitment/s or any obligation/s, in full or in part thereof, under the Code or these Rules shall constitute a breach. The purposes of disciplinary sanctions for breach of the Code or

 

Qus:6 Write the loan policy of RBI given to co-operative banks. Give the important guidelines from RBI on deposits.

  • Explanation of loan policy of RBI
  • Guidelines from RBI on deposits

Answer:

Explanation of loan policy of RBI:

The Reserve Bank of India is empowered to guide in the framing of the loan policy to be followed by the co-operative banks in general or by any cooperative bank in particular. In this respect, RBI may issue

 

 

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MA0039 &  RETAIL BANKING

BK ID B1619

CREDITS  4

MARKS 60

Q1 Explain the reasons for retail growth- An analysis. Give the advantages of retail banking. Explain the barriers to the development of banking sector in India.

(Explanation of reasons for retail growth-an analysis, Advantages of retail banking, Explanation of the barriers to the development of banking sector in India)3,3,4

Answer.

Reasons for retail growth-an analysis

  1. Economic prosperity and the consequent increase in purchasing power have given a boost to a consumer boom. Note that during the 10 years after 1992, India’s economy grew at an average rate of 6.8 percent and continues to grow at

 

Q2.

Write short notes on:

  1. a) Door step Banking
  2. b) Mobile Banking

 (Door step banking, Mobile Banking)4,6 

Answer.

  1. a) Door step Banking

Customers demand for services is such that banks need to provide banking service at their place of residence. Phone banking has been developed in banks to cater to such requirements of the customers. Through phone banking, a

 

Q3 Explain about the types of customers in retail banking. 

Individuals

  • Joint account holder
  • Sole proprietor
  • Partnership
  • Karta

Answer.

Joint account holder

Two persons can open a joint account with a bank. Bank is required to obtain clear operational instructions from the joint account holders. The account can operated

Jointly – account operated jointly by

 

Q4. Explain about cheque and its features. Explain the aspects on which a banker has to verify.

 (Explanation of cheque and its features, Explanation of aspects on which a banker has to verify)3,7

Answer.

Ccheque and its features

Cheques are the main instruments, which are used in settlement of money transactions. When a cheque is presented for payment, a banker is required to verify whether the cheque is in order before effecting payment.  According to section 6

 

Q5. Explain about clearing cheque and its features. Explain about Inter Bank Settlements.

(Explanation of clearing cheque, Explanation about Inter bank settlements)5,5

Answer.

Clearing cheque

Cheques are used as instruments to settle business transactions. One customer draws a cheque in favour of another customer and hands over   the cheque in settlement of his dues arising out of a business transaction. The person who draws the cheque is called ‘drawer’ and the person in whose favour the cheque is drawn is called ‘payee’.  The payee

 

 

Q6. Explain on Leveraging Technology. Write about Product and process innovation. Also write down on Technology Vs Global competition.

(Explanation on leveraging technology, Explanation on product and process innovation, Explanation on Technology Vs Global competition) 3,5,2

Answer.

Leveraging technology

The implementation of technology in banks has prompted them to leverage technology to a maximum extent to offer services through multiple channels. Both banks and customers are benefited through leverage of technology. Other than traditional banking, banks are able to offer new products and services through leverage of technology and include, ATM

 

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MIT102- DATA & FILE STRUCTURES

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(SPRING 2015 ASSIGNMENT)

 

PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MIT102- DATA & FILE STRUCTURES
CREDIT 2
BK ID B1476
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

  1. Define algorithm and write a note on Complexity and Time- Space Tradeoff with example

Answer : ALGORITHM

“An algorithm is a well defined list of steps to solve a particular problem”. “It is an abstract form of a program.” A set of algorithms are always used to perform operations on data structure. Data may be organized in many ways and many levels so algorithm has to be designed in such a manner so that it can perform the desired operation on the stored data.

An algorithm is a well defined list or sequence of steps to solve a particular problem. There may be more than one algorithm to solve a particular problem. The choice of a particular algorithm depends on the following considerations:

 

 

 

 

  1. Define Queue and explain how we can implement the Queue.

 

Answer : In computer science/data structures, a priority queue is an abstract data type which is like a regular queue or stack data structure, but where additionally each element has a “priority” associated with it. In a priority queue, an element with high priority is served before an element with low priority. If two elements have the same priority, they are served according to their order in the queue.

 

While priority queues are often implemented with heaps, they are conceptually distinct from heaps. A priority queue is an abstract concept like “a list” or ”

 

 

 

  1. List the Advantages and Disadvantages of Linear and linked representation of tree.

Answer : Advantages and disadvantages of linear representation

Advantages and disadvantages of linear representation
Advantages:

I. This representation is very easy to understand.
II. This is the best representation for complete and full binary tree representation.
III. Programming is very easy.
IV. It is very easy to move from a child to its parents and vice versa.
Disadvantages:
I. Lot of memory area wasted.
II. Insertion and deletion of nodes needs lot of data movement.
III. Execution time high.

 

 

 

  1. List and explain any Five types of graph.

 

Answer : Various flavors of graphs have the following specializations and particulars about how they are usually drawn.

  • Undirected Graphs.

 

 

5 Explain

 

  1. Fixed block storage allocation.

Answer : The simplest memory allocation is to have several fixed memory partitions and allocate a process to each one. Different sized partitions can be allocated to accomodate different processes memory needs.

Unless the

 

 

 

  1. Variable block storage allocation

Answer : A variable with Block type is declared using function pointer style notation substituting ^ for *. The following are valid

 

 

 

6 What is the use of external Storage Devices? Explain any two external storage devices

Answer : In computing, external storage comprises devices that temporarily store information for transporting from computer to computer. Such devices are not permanently fixed inside a computer.

 

Semiconductor memories are not sufficient to provide the whole storage capacity required in computers. The major limitation in using

 

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PM0018 –CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SPRING 2015
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 4/SEM 6)MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 4)PGDPMN (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME PM 0018 –CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS
BK ID B2014
CREDITS AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1. Explain the importance of project parties in project completion.

Discuss the importance of the project parties in terms of their functions

 

Answer:Political parties are not exactly the darlings of public opinion. Just like politicians, parties usually get a bad rap: parties only want power, they abuse government and look after themselves rather than the public good. Sounds familiar?The public perception of parties in young or established democracies doesn’t differ that much either.

 

 

 

 

  1. 2. What is bidding? Describe the bidding process from the buyer’s perspective

 

Answer:Bidding is an offer (often competitive) of setting a price one is willing to pay for something or a demand that something be done.A price offer is called a bid. The term may be used in context of auctions, stock exchange, card games, or real estate. Bidding is used by various economic niche for determining the demand and hence the value of the article or property, in today’s world of advance technology, Internet is one of the most favourite platforms for providing bidding facilities, it is the most natural way of determining the price of a

 

 

 

  1. 3. Explain the structure of a contract.

 

Answer:There are no hard and fast rules about forming a commercial agreement. It may be oral or written, or a combination of the 2. However, it’s always best to put down what you’ve both agreed in writing.

 

It’s important for the contractual terms to be clear and understandable, and to accurately reflect what you’ve both agreed. If there is a dispute between you in the future, a court may have to interpret your contract.

Typical elements of the contract

 

 

 

 

  1. 4. Explain Co-operative Benchmarking Process (COBAP)

 

Answer:The majority of benchmarking applications actually practiced in the market are made by the initiation of direct competitors or through the companies recognised as industry leaders. In this type of benchmarking, usually, the firms do not intend to share their knowledge. The proposed study is rather interested in building a mutually cooperative approach among partners. Collaborators have to share and exchange their skills and knowledge, which require an infrastructure to facilitate their relationships.Benchmarking is a process that

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Explain any 5 ways that contracts may be terminated or discharged.

 

Answer:A contract is a legal document that binds at least two parties to one another. A contract requires one or both parties meet obligations detailed in the contract before it is completed. In some instances, contract termination can occur that will make the contract void of legal binding. Only the parties involved in the agreement may terminate a contract.

 

Impossibility of Performance: A contract typically

 

 

 

  1. 6. What are the different contract forms of PPP (Public Private Partnership).

 

Answer:A public–private partnership (PPP) is a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. These schemes are sometimes referred to as PPP, P3 or P3. PPP involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne exclusively by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer. In other types (notably

 

 

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